title: Aurangzeb’s Generosity for Hindus,
content:

By Dr. Habib Siddiqui

""

And do not let the hatred of a people prevent you from being just. Be just; that is nearer to righteousness. And fear Allah. (Al-Ma’idah5:8)

Of all the Muslim rulers who ruled vast territories of India from 712 to 1857 CE, probably no one has received as much condemnation from Western and Hindu writers as Aurangzeb. He has been castigated as a religious Muslim who was anti-Hindu, who taxed them, who tried to convert them, who discriminated against them in awarding high administrative positions, and who interfered in their religious matters. This view has been heavily promoted in the government approved textbooks in schools and colleges across post-partition India (i.e., after 1947). In fact, these are intentional fabrications against one of the best rulers of India, who was pious, scholarly, saintly, un-biased, liberal, magnanimous, tolerant, competent, and far-sighted.

Powerful Posts for Hindus during the Reign of Aurangzeb

Fortunately, in recent years quite a few Hindu historians have come out in the open disputing those allegations. For example, historian Babu Nagendranath Banerjee rejected the accusation of forced conversion of Hindus by Muslim rulers by stating that if that was their intention, then in India today there would not be nearly four times as many Hindus compared to Muslims, despite the fact that Muslims had ruled for nearly a thousand years.

Banerjee challenged the Hindu hypothesis that Aurangzeb was anti-Hindu by reasoning that if the latter was truly guilty of such bigotry, how could he appoint a Hindu as his military commander-in-chief? Surely, he could have afforded to appoint a competent Muslim general in that position.

"A

A copy of the Farman issued by Aurangzeb translated in Hindi ordering to protect Hindu Pundits and their temples

Banerjee further stated “No one should accuse Aurangzeb of being communal minded. In his administration, the state policy was formulated by Hindus. Two Hindus held the highest position in the State Treasury. Some prejudiced Muslims even questioned the merit of his decision to appoint non-Muslims to such high offices. The Emperor refuted that by stating that he had been following the dictates of the Shar`iah (Islamic Law) which demands appointing right persons in right positions.”

During Aurangzeb’s long reign of fifty years, many Hindus, notably Jaswant Singh, Raja Rajrup, Kabir Singh, Arghanath Singh, Prem Dev Singh, Dilip Roy, and Rasik Lal Crory, held very high administrative positions. Two of the highest ranked generals in Aurangzeb’s administration, Jaswant Singh and Jaya Singh, were Hindus. Other notable Hindu generals who commanded a garrison of two to five thousand soldiers were Raja Bhim Singh of Udaypur, Indra Singh, Achalaji and Arjuji. One wonders if Aurangzeb was hostile to Hindus, why would he position all these Hindus to high positions of authority, especially in the military, who could have mutinied against him and removed him from his throne?

Most Hindus like Akbar over Aurangzeb for his multi-ethnic court where Hindus were favored. Historian Shri Sharma states that while Emperor Akbar had fourteen Hindu Mansabdars (high officials) in his court, Aurangzeb actually had 148 Hindu high officials in his court. However, this fact is somewhat less known.

Some Hindu Writers and Aurangzeb

Some of the Hindu historians have accused Aurangzeb of demolishing Hindu Temples. How factual is this accusation against a man, who has been known to be a saintly man, a strict adherent of Islam? The Glorious Qur’an prohibits any Muslim to impose his will on a non-Muslim by stating, “There is no compulsion in religion.” (Al-Baqarah2:256). And Surah Al-Kafirun clearly states: “To you is your religion and to me is mine.” It would be totally unbecoming of a learned scholar of Islam of his caliber, as Aurangzeb was known to be, to do things that are contrary to the dictates of the Glorious Qur’an.

Interestingly, the 1946 edition of the history textbook Etihas Parichaya (Introduction to History) used in Bengal for the 5th and 6th graders states: “If Aurangzeb had the intention of demolishing temples to make way for mosques, there would not have been a single temple standing erect in India. On the contrary, Aurangzeb donated huge estates for use as Temple sites and support thereof in Benares, Kashmir, and elsewhere. The official documentations for these land grants are still extant.”

Donations of Aurangzeb for Hindu Temples

"A

A copy of the Farman issued by Aurangzeb in Persian ordering to protect Hindu Pundits and their temples

A stone inscription in the historic Balaji or Vishnu Temple, located north of Chitrakut Balaghat, still shows that it was commissioned by the Emperor himself. The proof of Aurangzeb’s land grant for famous Hindu religious sites in Kasi, Varanasi can easily be verified from the deed records extant at those sites. The same textbook reads: “During the fifty year reign of Aurangzeb, not a single Hindu was forced to embrace Islam. He did not interfere with any Hindu religious activities.” (p. 138) Alexander Hamilton, a British historian, toured India towards the end of Aurangzeb’s fifty year reign and observed that everyone was free to serve and worship God in his own way.

The Reality of Jizyah (Tax) During the Aurangzeb’s Period

Now let us deal with Aurangzeb’s imposition of the jizya tax which had drawn severe criticism from many Hindu historians. It is true that jizya was lifted during the reign of Akbar and Jahangir and that Aurangzeb later reinstated this. Before I delve into the subject of Aurangzeb’s jizya tax, or taxing the non-Muslims, it is worthwhile to point out that jizya is nothing more than a war tax which was collected only from able-bodied young non-Muslim male citizens living in a Muslim country who did not want to volunteer for the defense of the country. That is, no such tax was collected from non-Muslims who volunteered to defend the country. This tax was not collected from women, and neither from immature males nor from disabled or old male citizens. For payment of such taxes, it became incumbent upon the Muslim government to protect the life, property and wealth of its non-Muslim citizens. If for any reason the government failed to protect its citizens, especially during a war, the taxable amount was returned.

"This

This Farman was issued by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb ordering his officials to protect Hindu temples and let the Hindus and Brahmans to worship their gods as they wish.

It should be pointed out here that zakat (2.5% of savings) and ‘ushr(10% of agricultural products) were collected from all Muslims, who owned some wealth (beyond a certain minimum, called nisab). They also paid sadaqahfitrah, and khums. None of these was collected from any non-Muslim. As a matter of fact, the per capita collection from Muslims was several fold that of non-Muslims. Further to Auranzeb’s credit is his abolition of a lot of taxes, although this fact is not usually mentioned. In his book Mughal Administration, Sir Jadunath Sarkar, foremost historian on the Mughal dynasty, mentions that during Aurangzeb’s reign in power, nearly sixty-five types of taxes were abolished, which resulted in a yearly revenue loss of fifty million rupees from the state treasury.

While some Hindu historians are retracting the lies, the textbooks and historic accounts in Western countries have yet to admit their error and set the record straight.

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Taken from: http://www.albalagh.net/general/0093.shtml with modifications.


tags: afghanistan / amarnath / anandpala / arya-samaj / aurangzeb / banaras / brahmu-samaj / combination-of-islam-and-hinduism / common-things-in-islam-and-hinduism / compare-and-contrast-islam-and-hinduism-essay / dayanad / difference-between-islam-and-hinduism / difference-between-islam-and-hinduism-pdf / ethical-standards-of-islam-and-hinduism / ganga / ghazni / gujarat / hindu / hinduism-and-islam-book-pdf / hinduism-and-islam-god-is-one / hinduism-and-islam-relations / hinduism-and-islam-the-common-thread / hinduism-and-islam-the-common-thread-pdf / hinduism-vs-islam-religion / history-of-islam-and-hinduism / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-alike / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-different / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-similar / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-the-same / how-old-is-islam-and-hinduism / idolatry / in-what-region-did-islam-and-hinduism-meet / islam / islam-about-hinduism / islam-and-hinduism-by-zakir-naik-pdf / islam-and-hinduism-common / islam-and-hinduism-comparison-chart / islam-and-hinduism-connection / islam-and-hinduism-essay / islam-and-hinduism-in-india / islam-and-hinduism-pdf / islam-aur-hinduism / islam-aur-hinduism-me-yaksaniyat / islam-buddhism-hinduism-judaism-christianity / islam-buddhism-hinduism-similarities / islam-copied-hinduism / islam-e-hinduismo / islam-from-hinduism / islam-hinduism-christianity / islam-hinduism-comparison / islam-in-hinduism-books / islam-o-hinduismo / islam-on-hinduism / islam-or-hinduism-which-is-older / islam-origin-hinduism / islam-over-hinduism / islam-prophet-hinduism / islam-quran-hinduism / islam-to-hinduism / islam-to-hinduism-conversion / islam-to-hinduism-converts / islam-vs-hinduism-chart / islam-vs-hinduism-history / islam-vs-hinduism-in-hindi / islam-vs-hinduism-vs-buddhism / jagannath / jayapala / judaism-and-hinduism-islam / kumbh-maila / lakshmi / lekhram / mahmud / mix-of-islam-and-hinduism / mughals / punjab / religion-that-combines-islam-and-hinduism / sarasvati / shivling / sikhism-mixture-of-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-between-hinduism-and-islam-dr-zakir-naik / similarities-between-hinduism-islam-and-judaism / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism-by-dr-zakir-naik / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism-pdf / similarities-of-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-with-islam-and-hinduism / somnath / temple / varanasi / what-do-islam-and-hinduism-have-in-common / what-do-islam-and-hinduism-in-fact-represent / what-does-hinduism-islam-and-judaism-have-in-common / what-does-islam-and-hinduism-have-in-common / yamuna /



title: Prevention from Coronavirus in Islam,
content:

People all over the world are scared of the outbreak of coronavirus that initially attacks the respiratory system in human body and cause illness. Recently the coronavirus has been identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.""

Chinese authorities identified the new coronavirus, which has resulted in thousands confirmed cases in China. In addition, some people have been diagnosed with the infection in other countries.

Bat and Snake Initial Source of Coronavirus

The outbreak was initially traced to a seafood market that sold live animals in Wuhan. Scientists have said that a type of snake may be the original source of the Wuhan coronavirus. However, other infectious disease experts say the ultimate culprit is more likely to be the bat.(1)

Wudhu and Full Body Wash A Prevention in Islam

According to experts, the source of coronavirus is originally bat and snake, and both in Islam are forbidden to eat. Islam permits to consume only pure and good food and drink. The practice of ablution in Islam is a pre-condition for every Muslim man and woman before each of five daily prayers in the day and night. Wudhu in Islam refers to washing the face, arms, head and feet with clean water. In Wudhu, mouth and nostrils are also cleansed with water and head is wiped. It is called ablution and it is obligatory before prayer or similar worship acts.

Full body bath after sexual intercourse for both; man and woman is obligatory, and after the end of postpartum bleeding and menstruation is necessary for woman in Islam.

Quarantine in Hadith

I wondered during writing these lines when I found two Prophetic Hadiths about the plague that instruct not to flee from the land infected with plague and not enter it. Of course the Hadith is not limited to the plague itself, but includes every contagious disease and germs that may move through the air and can pollute the atmosphere and can spread around, including coronavirus.

The First Hadith:

The Prophet (may peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) said, “If you hear of an outbreak of plague in a land, do not enter it; but if the plague breaks out in a place while you are in it, do not leave that place.”  (Reported by Al Bukhari)

The Arabic Text of the Hadith

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: إذا سمعتم بالطاعون في أرض فلا تدخلوها، وإذا وقع بأرض وأنتم فيها، فلا تخرجوا منها. (رواه البخاري)

The Second Hadith

The Prophet of Allah (may peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) said: The one who flees from the plague (infected territory) is like a fugitive from war, but whoever shows patience in that deserves a martyr’s reward. (Reported by Imam Ahmad in Musnad)

The Arabic Text of the Hadith

 

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: الفارُّ من الطاعون كالفارِّ من الزحف ومن صبر فيه كان له أجر شهيد. (رواه أحمد)

 

What is Quarantine in Medical Science?

Quarantine in medical term is restraining people’s connections and transporting animals to prevent the spread of diseases or pests. If we understand the goal of the Hadith and wisdom behind we become more satisfied that the instruction of the Hadith is to control the cause of the disease and limit it to its originating area.

Medical Science has advanced in the modern era and microorganisms and bacteria have been discovered and identified now and experts knew how do they multiply and spread and cause diseases and epidemics. Modern medical science has revealed that healthy people in the land of the epidemic who do not have any visible symptoms of the disease may carry within them diseases virus and will transfer the epidemic to other territories if they move to them. Therefore the quarantine system has been introduced globally, in which all residents of the infected city are prevented from leaving or entering.

The Hadith a Miracle of the Prophet Muhammad

The Messenger of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) has guided through the Hadith to a basic and miraculous instruction on prevention from the viruses that has been later considered one of the basics of the modern preventive medicine after the discovery of microbes and virus.

Human Nature is to Flee from the Infected Land

Suppose, if it was said to a healthy person only two hundred years ago, when he saw people around him dying of the epidemic and he was healthy and strong to flee from the territory, if he was asked to stay there, the suggestion would have been considered contrary to the wisdom and logic. But now, after it has been discovered that some healthy people may not show symptoms of the disease in the epidemic area may be carrying within their bodies some virus that may appear later and can infect the people around if they move to another land or area. That is why the quarantine system has been introduced in modern age. The question here is: who told the Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) about this truth? Can human mind speak of this exact medical fact fifteen centuries ago? When there was no information on the bacteria, virus, corona or plague. Only answer for this question is that the Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) had received the information from the All-knowing and All-Seeing; Allah the Almighty!

Dua for the Safety from Coronavirus

It is useful and appropriate to the context to mention a Dua or supplication for the prevention of deadly and infectious diseases including the epidemic coming from the Coronavirus.

The Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) taught to recite the following Dua.

“Allahumma Inni ‘A`audhu Bika Min Al-Baras wal-Junoon wal-Juzam, wa-min sayyi il-Asqaam”. (Reported by Abu Dawood through an authentic chain)

(Oh Allah, I seek refuge in You from Albinism, madness and leprosy, and from the bad diseases.)

The Arabic Text of the Dua

“اَللَّهُمُّ إِنِّيْ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْبَرَصِ وَالْجُنُونِ وَالْجُذَامِ، وَمِنْ سَيِّئِ الْأسْقَامِ.”( رَوَاهُ أَبو داود بإِسنادٍ صحيحٍ.)

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کورونا وائرس سے حفاظت کیلئے دعا 

یہاں میں یہ مناسب سمجھتا ہوں کہ ایک مفید دعاذکر کردیا جائے جو کورونا وائرس سے آنے والی وبا سمیت اور بہت ساری مہلک اور متعدی امراض سے بچنے کے لئے نہایت کارآمد ہے.حضرت محمد صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے مندرجہ ذیل دعا پڑھنے کی تعلیم فرمائی. 

“اَللَّهُمُّ إِنِّيْ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْبَرَصِ وَالْجُنُونِ وَالْجُذَامِ، وَمِنْ سَيِّئِ الْأسْقَامِ.”

 (اے اللہ ، میں تیری پناہ میں آتاہوں سفید داغ، جنون (ذہنی بیماری) اور جذام سے، اور تمام بری بیماریوں سے)۔(ابو داوود نے اس کی روایت کی)

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कोरोनावायरस से सुरक्षा के लिए दुआ 

कोरोनावायरस से आने वाली महामारी सहित सारे घातक और संक्रामक रोगों से बचने के लिए एक दुआ का उल्लेख यहाँ उपयोगी और उपयुक्त है। बुरे रोगों से बचने के लिए पैग़म्बर हज़रत मुहम्मद (सल्लाहू अलैहे वसल्लम) ने निम्नलिखित दुआ पढ़ना सिखाया।

“अल्लाहुम्मा इन्नी  अऊज़ु बिका मिनल-बरस वल-जुनून वल-जुज़ाम, व-मिन सय्यिइल-असक़ाम”।

(एक प्रामाणिक श्रृंखला के माध्यम से अबू दाऊद द्वारा लिखी गई)।

(हे अल्लाह, मैं तेरी शरण लेता हूँ  सुफैद दाग़ (की बिमारी) से , पागलपन और कोढ़ (के रोग) से और बुरी बीमारियों से।)हदीस का अरबी सूत्र:

“اَللَّهُمُّ إِنِّيْ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْبَرَصِ وَالْجُنُونِ وَالْجُذَامِ، وَمِنْ سَيِّئِ الْأسْقَامِ.”( رَوَاهُ أَبو داود بإِسنادٍ صحيحٍ.)

 

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(1) https://cnn.it/2tSJyuE

 


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title: Intoxicant in Hinduism and Islam (2/2),
content:

To read the first part of this article, please, click here.

Allah the Almighty has created mankind and honored him above all other creatures. Allah the Almighty has equipped human being with mind, reasoning instinct and thinking power to enlighten him and help him to understand the path of guidance and save him from the"" path of evils.

Without using his mind, mankind will not be able to distinguish the path of righteousness and piety from the path of wrongdoing and evil actions. The fair mind is a divine gift to guide mankind to the real success in this world and the final salvation in the hereafter.

Gradual Prohibition of Intoxicant in Islam

The prohibition of alcohol in Islam was not suddenly in one time, or in one stage, but the ruling on wine in the Glorious Qur’an went through gradual stages due to the mercy from Allah the Almighty to the helpless human being who is always weak before his habits and desires.

Therefore, the ruling came in gradual manner with a comprehensive demonstration and explanation the wisdom behind this ruling and in the final stage; all sorts of intoxicants have been declared as prohibited in Islam.

Prohibition of Intoxicant in the Glorious Qur’an

In the first stage Allah the Almighty said:

“They ask you about wine and gambling. Say, “In them is great sin and [yet, some] benefit for people. But their sin is greater than their benefit.” [Al Baqarah2:219]

At the time of revelation, Arabs used to name the intoxicant grape juice Khamr that originally refers to hide or conceal because alcohol or wine covers or coats the mind and thinking power in human nature. Therefore, any substance or drink that hides the mind must be included in the content of the word Khamr or wine, whether it has been produced from grapes or anything else. Woman’s veil in Arabic is also called Khimar from the same root-word Khamr because it covers her face. For that reason, the majority of the Muslim scholars views that the word “Khamr” or wine includes every intoxicant drink, whether it is made from grape juice, from barley or from dates or something else.(1)

In the second stage, the divine command came forbidding the people only to near the prayer in the state of intoxication.  Allah the Almighty said:

“O you, who have believed, do not approach prayer while you are intoxicated until you know what you are saying.” [An-Nisaa4:43]

In this stage, Allah the Almighty has only forbade to approach the prayer in the state of intoxication.

In the third stage, the prohibition of wine came final, forever and in all cases, and Allah the Almighty instructed His servants to give up alcohol totally that spoils the minds and causes them to insult their souls. Allah the Almighty said:

“O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants, gambling, [sacrificing on] stone altars [to other than Allah], and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of Satan, so avoid it that you may be successful. Satan only wants to cause between you animosity and hatred through intoxicants and gambling and to avert you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. So will you not desist?” [Al Ma’idah5:90-100]

These two verses illustrate the prohibition of alcohol in many ways:

The first: Allah the Almighty has mentioned wine besides the gambling and sacrificing on the stone altars [to other than Allah and made drinking wine equal to the polytheism; the worst sin according to Islam.

The second: alcohol in the Glorious Qur’an has been described as disgusting and impure, that denotes a strict prohibition.

The third: the phrase: (So avoid it) is a command to abstain it completely, and this type of command is used only to mean complete avoidance such as the avoidance of idolatry and worship of deities.

The fourth: This avoidance will result in the success, as Allah the Almighty has said: “So that you may be successful.” and obtaining the sources of the success is a necessary and an obligation.

The fifth: Alcohol or wine is a cause of hostility and hatred in the society. The Almighty said: “Satan only wants to cause between you animosity and hatred through intoxicants and gambling.”

The sixth: Alcohol or wine is a reason to distract from Allah the Almighty, His worship and His remembrance, as Allah the Almighty said: “and to avert you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer.”.

Seventh: The verse concludes by saying: “So will you not give up?”. After mentioning all these convincing reasons for the prohibition, Allah the Almighty has encouraged to abstain by asking: “So will you not desist?” Therefore, when the believers heard the divine commandment, they said: We have already given up, O our Lord; we have already given up, O our Lord.

What is Mother of all Evils?

The third caliph of Muslims; `Uthman ibn Affan (may Allah be pleased with him) has described the wine as “ummul Khaba’ith” (mother ""of evils) and narrated a story about the evil results of wine consumption as was reported by An-Nasa’i.

He said: “Avoid the wine since it is the mother of all evils. A pious man from a nation before your time used to seclude himself from the people in order to worship Allah the Almighty. A seductive woman chased him. She sent her maid to call him for a witness. When he entered her quarters, she closed all the doors behind him until he was alone with this very beautiful woman in the presence of her boy servant and a bottle of wine.  She said, “I did not call you for a witness but to have me or to drink that wine or to kill that boy.” She first made him drink the wine and he asked for more until he lost his mind, had relations with her and then killed the boy.”(2)I think that Islamic culture is the only and first one in the world that gave wine the name “mother of all evils” because its consumption leads to several individual, social, health, spiritual, physical and financial damages. Such bad name was given to keep people away from this curse.

Punishment for Drinking Wine in Islam 

Drinking alcohol results in punishment in this world and the torment in the Hereafter, because at first, it is a sin and disobedience to Allah the Almighty and then a crime against the society.Muslim jurists have agreed that there is a punishment for the drinker of wine, due to the authentic evidence in the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) that have stated clearly that wine is forbidden and evil. The punishment on drinking wine is flogging; however, the jurists have differed in the number of flogging. It has been reported on the authority of Ali ibn Abu Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and Abu Bakr have flogged in the wine forty times, while the number of flogging has been increased by Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) to become eighty and everyone of them is a Sunnah.(3) Imam Ash-Shafi’i concludes that the number of flogging the drinking is 40 while Imam Malik and Imam Abu Haneefah say that it is 80 lashes.

Physical and Mental Damages of Drinking 

According to the experts, drinking wine leads to countless physical and mental damages, and this has explained as follows: The Heart Organization says in this regard:“Drinking too much alcohol increases your risk for many health problems, including high blood pressure, obesity, stroke, breast cancer, liver disease, depression, suicide, accidents, alcohol abuse and alcoholism. If you don’t drink already, don’t start. If you do drink, talk with your doctor about the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation. Some people should not drink at all, like women who are pregnant or trying to get pregnant, people under age 21 and people with certain health conditions.”(4)

This report is based on plain research and experiment away from considering the religious dimension, as if it verifies what the Glorious Qur’an has said fifteen centuries ago; the Glorious Quran already has said:”In them is great sin and [yet, some] benefit for people. But their sin is greater than their benefit.” [Al Baqarah2:219]

Addiction the Final Stage in the Alcoholism

The habit of wine, as we note, is difficult to quit, rather, alcohol usually ends on addiction or death in general. One cup and then two cups and then three cups and so on, as well as, at first, once in the day and night and then twice and then three times and so on. Islam remained wise when it forbade small amount and big amount, one time or ten times. Islam regards it totally impure; if it gets the body or dress it must be purified.

Conclusion: 

First: Wine in Islam is unanimously and undoubtedly forbidden and small amount of it is as forbidden as the big quantity.  Unlike Hinduism that has contradicting opinions on drinking alcohol, finally, Hinduism does not have any final ruling on drinking alcohol. Rather, drinking wine has been habits of some Hindu gods, deities and spiritual leaders since the time of the Veda.

Second: Because of the strict prohibition and punishment, the percentage of wine drinkers and intoxicant consumers among men and women in Muslim families and the Muslim communities is less, eventually; the harms and damages caused by drinking alcohol are less as well. Unlike Hindu families and individuals who do not see any guilt in consuming alcohol, therefore, consumption of intoxicant is higher amongst them in comparison with Muslims.

Third: Prohibition of alcohol in Islam in the strict way and during that early time and then revealing of the modern sciences for the harms of wine and all sorts of intoxicants coincides with the philosophy of Islam and this is a clear evidence for the genuineness of the message of Islam because it is always nature of heavenly messages to guide the people when they are ignorant or confused, while the confusion and contradiction around the ruling of wine and drugs in Hinduism represented in its Holy books are the clear evidence on human exploitation and its broken link with heavenly and divine Source.

Fourth: Making consumption of alcohol “mother of evils” in the Islamic culture is one of the characteristics and features of Islamic civilization only, not found in any other culture in the world. In addition, the continuation of that collective awareness in Islamic society is evidence of the solid foundation, strong base and good foundation represented in the message of Islam has a power to lead mankind in security, safety and peace.

Fifth: The gradual manner in the rule of wine in the Noble Qur’an is evidence of Allah’s mercy with mankind, in addition, the graduation was to create the situation for the final prohibition, and this is in contrast to man-made laws, which may overlook the human side or dimension in legislating and implementing the laws.

__________________________

(1) Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy (1928-2010), At-Tafsir Al-Waseet.

(2) Obayd Adh-Dhreer/Taqi ud-Deen abdul-malik albabi, nuzhat an-Naazirin fi al-akhbar wal-aathar almarwiah an al’anbia’ was-saalihin, Dar Al Kotob Al Ilmiyah 2008, p.560

(3) Musnad Ahmad by Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 1rst, p. 140.

(4) (http://bit.ly/2uytpu7)


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title: Intoxicant in Hinduism and Islam (1/2),
content:

This article tries to reveal the ruling on usage of intoxicant in general and drinking alcohol in Hinduism and Islam. The ruling in Islam on usage of intoxicant in general and drinking wine is prohibition in common and normal situation without any doubt or dispute. This ruling of Islam is a well-known in the world; Muslims and non-Muslims knows it very well. As for in Hinduism, the ruling on usage of intoxicant and drinking wine is vague, unclear, and may even tend to the permission more than to prohibition.""

The use of the word intoxicant comes to consider that narcotic substances in the past were numbered and limited, but the forms and narcotic objects in the present era have multiplied and diversified but the rule of Islam on intoxicant is based on the quality or property of  intoxication and not on the forms of intoxicants. In Islam, all sorts of intoxicants are prohibited because of intoxication, regardless of its shapes and causes.

We will present at first the ruling on the subject in Hinduism from the Hindu scriptures and holy books.

Alcohol in Hinduism

The question here is: Is drinking alcohol prohibited in Hinduism? The answer is; there is no such prohibition on drinking alcohol in Hinduism. Even, some herbal wines have been considered as good medicine when taken in right quantity. Therefore, Hinduism does not prohibit anyone from drinking alcohol. But it ensures that the person uses it in limited quantity avoiding its side effects.(1)

On the other hand, there are other opinions in Hinduism that say it is forbidden. Therefore, it can be said that the ruling on drinking alcohol in Hinduism has different and contradictory opinions. Even the Hindu scriptures and sacred texts in Hinduism have both; prohibition and permission.

Prohibition of Alcohol in Hinduism

Some Hindu scriptures even made drinking wine one of the major sins.

Chandogya Upanishad says: “One of the five major sins in Hinduism, or Pancha-mahapatakas ‘A man who steals gold, who drinks spirits, who dishonors his Guru’s bed, who kills a Brahman, these are the four and as a fifth he who associates with them.”(2)

Alcohol in Mahabharata

In the Mahabharata, Shukracharya due to his alcoholism caused Kacha to be killed, ground up and mixed in his alcohol by the Asuras. After going through an ordeal of having to teach Kacha the secret Sanjivani knowledge, Shukracharya came to his senses, and pronounced these sayings on drinking:

यो ब्राह्मणो अद्य प्रभृतीह कश्चिन्मोहात्सुरां पास्यति मन्दबुद्धिः।

अपेतधर्मो ब्रह्महा चैव स स्यादस्मिँल्लोके गर्हितः स्यात्परे च ॥

“Whoever foolish brahmana henceforth drinks alcohol out of delusion, he should be considered as devoid of dharma, a killer of Brahmans, and should be forever despised in this world and the next.”

“At the command of Ahuka, of Janarddana, of Rama, and of high-souled Vabhru, it was, again, proclaimed throughout the city, that from that day, among all the Vrishnis and the Andhakas no one should manufacture wines and intoxicating spirits of any kind, and that whoever would secretly manufacture wines and spirits should be impaled alive with all his kinsmen.

Through fear of the king, and knowing that it was the command of Rama also of unimpeachable deeds, all the citizens bound themselves by a rule and abstained from manufacturing wines and spirits.”(3)

This text denotes two important points; 1) Alcohol existed at that time. 2) the production of alcohol was prohibited by the king. So, the production and usage were forbidden in Hinduism. However, there are many other texts in Vedas, Upanishads and Puranas that show that usage of alcohol is permissible.

A Hindu writer says:

Hinduism never issues a list for its followers, but explains the difference between right and wrong. Therefore, the responsibility of the way selection depends entirely on the individual. Just gives some recommendations.(4)

Soma Liquor in Vedas

Atharvaveda describes the Heaven and says that there are rivers of wines flowing in Paradise.

Atharva Veda says: “Full lakes of butter with their banks of honey, flowing with wine, and milk and curds and water abundant with their overflow of sweetness, these streams shall reach thee in the world of Svarga, whole lakes with lotus blossom shall approach thee.” (5)

Yajur Veda mentions Nectar Soma and says:

“Soma with Wine, pressed; filtered for the banquet, cleanses priest, noble, brilliancy and vigor. God, with the bright give Deities enjoyment: give food with flavor to the Sacrificer.”(6)

In addition, Yajur Veda says: “The Agni, Sarasvatî, and Indra have drunk the Surâ and Soma draughts.”(7)

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar wrote in his book- Riddles in Hinduism, “The ancient Aryans were also a race of drunkards. Wine formed a most essential part of their religion. The Vedic Gods drank wine. The divine wine was called Soma. Since the Gods of the Aryans drank wine the Aryans had no scruples in the matter of drinking. Indeed to drink was a part of an Aryan’s religious duty… Who were denied Soma drank Sura which was ordinary, unconsecrated wine sold in the market. Not only the male Aryans were addicted to drinking but the females also indulged in drinking.(8)

In addition, Soma drink is very common in Vedic literature that has been regarded as an auspicious drink used in Hindu rituals. The question is: Is soma a wine or alcohol? The coming lines will explore the answer.

Is Soma a Sort of Intoxicant?

The Sanskrit and English Dictionary mention the word सोमा Soma and its meaning as follows.

“सोम soma, juice, extract, especially the juice of the Soma plant, also the Soma plant itself (said to be the climbing plant Sarcostema Viminalis or Asclepias Acida, the stalks of which were pressed between stones by the priests, then sprinkled with water, and purified in a strainer; whence the acid juice poured into jars or larger vessels; after which it was mixed with clarified butter, flour, made to ferment, and then offered in libations to the gods [in this respect corresponding with the ritual of the Iranian Avesta] or was drunk by the Brahmans, by both of whom its exhilarating effect was supposed to be prized; it was collected by moonlight on certain mountains; it is sometimes described as having been brought from the sky by a falcon and guarded by the Gandharvas; it is personified as one of the most important of Vedic gods, to whose praise all the 114 hymns of the 9th book of the Rig Veda, besides 6 in other books and the whole Sama Veda are dedicated; in post-Vedic mythology and even in a few of the latest hymns of the Rig Veda [although not in the whole of the 9th book], a drug of supposed magical properties.”(9)

Homa in Iran and Soma in India

In the quote, we will draw the attention to the important phrases, “acid juice” “made to ferment” “exhilarating effect” “a drug of supposed magical properties” “Corresponding with the ritual of the Iranian Avesta”. The first four phrases are descriptions to Soma; those qualities are the same of the wine or alcohol. And the last phrase gives evidence that the Aryans are the ancient Iranians who invaded India and brought their tradition of Soma drink which is called Homa amongst the Zoroastrians, only the letter “H” has been altered with “S” as happened in the word Indus and Hindus.

This is about Soma in the Vedas, the most authentic authority on the Hindu faith and practice that are final proof and evidence without controversy and discussion for Hindus. As for other and later religious texts such as Upanishads and Puranas, there is a great mention and discussion of the subject of Soma. We are going to quote some of them here.

Permission of Intoxicant in Hindu Scriptures

Flesh and wine before the start of worship to Shiva,  as Srimad Bhagavatam says: “When initiated into worship of Lord Shiva, they prefer to live on wine, flesh and other such things.”(10)

Mahabharata says: “The gods, uniting with the Asuras, and making the Mandara Mountain their pole, churned the waters of the ocean and obtained the wine called Varun.”(11)

Moreover, Mahabharata says: “Behold now, O companion of the Lord of the celestials, that abode, made entirely of gold, and full of the wine called Varuni. Indeed, having obtained that wine, the gods acquired their god-heads.”(12)

Valmiki-Ramayana mentions the wine and says: “Like unto Purandara with Sachi, he took Sita by the hand, made her sit and drink the wine distilled in the province of Mira. And in no time the servants brought for him well-cooked meat and various fruits. Being inebriate the beautiful Apsaras, well-skilled in the art of singing and dancing, began to dance before Rama.”(13)

It was mentioned in Valmiki-Ramayana that Sita vowed to worship offering a hundred pots of wine. The scripture says in this connection:

“Having come near the middle of the Kalindi, Sita prayed unto her, saying, ‘Hail to thee, O goddess! I cross thee. If my husband can successfully perform his vow, I will worship thee with a thousand cows and a hundred vessels of wine.”(14)

Mahabharata narrates that Hanuman was intoxicated until his eyes were red. The scripture says: “The powerful Hanuman, however, opening his eyes partially looked at him (Bhima) with disregard, with eyes reddened with intoxication.”(15)

In Mahabharata, meat and wine both have been mentioned together.

“And Krishna gave unto each of the illustrious sons of Pandu numerous female slaves, and gems and robes. And then the nuptial festival set in between the families of the Matsya king and the Pandavas. And then conchs and cymbals and horns and drums and other musical instruments appointed by the Pandavas, began to play in the palace of Virata. And deer of various kinds and clean animals by hundreds were slain. And wines of various kinds and intoxicating juices of trees were profusely collected.”(16)

Hindu God Krishna and Liquor

Hindu god, Krishna has been referred in Puranas as fond of liquor.

Padma Purana says: “Then the two (Krishna and Radha), O Brahmana, being tired due to many pastimes proper for the times in the groves endowed with vernal breezes on all sides, resort, with their attendants, to the root of a tree, and sitting on a divine seat, drank liquor.”(17)

“Once Balarama, the highly blessed Revati and other excellent ladies were seated in the Raivata garden and engaged in drinking wine.”(18)

Hindu Goddess; Kali a Lover of Wine

Kali is a Hindu goddess who is seen killing demons in her raged attitude. Mahabharata depicts Kali to be fond of wine, meat and animal sacrifice.

“Thy eternal abode is on Vindhya–that foremost of mountains. O Kali, O Kali, thou art the great Kali, ever fond of wine and meat and animal sacrifice.”(19)

Shiv-Purana says Kali used to drink grape wine before killing demons.

“Going to the battle ground, the goddess Kali roared like a lion. On hearing that the Danavas fainted. She laughed boisterously again and again boding ill to the Asuras. She drank the distilled grape-wine and danced on the battle ground. The manifestations of Durga viz Ugradamstra (one with fierce fangs) Ugradanda (one with fierce baton) and Kotavi (the naked) danced on the battle ground and drank wine.”(20)

Hindu religious scriptures also mention Hindu ascetics and worshipers as alcoholics, beside the gods and deities.

Muni Dattatreya the son of the great sage Atri, was an alcoholic according to scriptures.

Padma Purana says: “Atri’s son Dattatreya, the high-souled-Brahmana, the great sage, with his eyes red due to (having drunk) spirituous liquor, was sporting with a woman. The virtuous one, intoxicated by wine, having seated a young, auspicious woman, best of all women (Lakshmi), on his lap, sang, danced and heavily drank liquor.” (21)

Conclusion

After looking into the mentioned evidence and proofs, it becomes very clear that Hinduism not only allows drinking alcohol, rather, drinking alcohol was common and widespread practice in Hindu civilization.  Drinking alcohol was one of the habits of the gods and spiritual leaders. Moreover, drinking alcohol remained an important part of the offerings and sacrifices for the various rituals in Hinduism. Even today we find Hindu writers and thinkers skeptical and hesitant about the ruling on drinking alcohol.

On the other hand, Islam is completely clear about alcohol, wine, drugs, narcotics, intoxicant and everything that leads to the disruption of the mind, thought, or feeling, temporarily or permanently, is forbidden in normal cases, as we will address in the next part of this article.

According to the belief of Muslims the Noble Qur’an is a revelation from Allah the Almighty. The ruling on the prohibition of wine is clearly explained in Noble Qur’an. One of the characteristics of divine ruling in Islam is that if it comes, there is no place or room for conflict or dispute for any Muslim. The ruling on wine was not given to the human mind, which is in general a field of acceptation and denial. In fact, the prohibition of alcohol in Islam is evidence that it is a religion revealed from Allah the Almighty.

To read the last part of this article, please, click here.

____________________

(1) http://bit.ly/30jfFiF .

(2) Chandogya Upanishad, 5.10.9.

(3) Mahabharata Mausala Parva, Section I.

(4) http://bit.ly/30jfFiF

(5) Atharva Veda 4.34.6.

(6) Yajur Veda 19.5.

(7) Yajur Veda 21.60.

(8) DR. BABASAHEB AMBEDKAR WRITINGS AND SPEECHES VOL. 4, by VASANT MOON, Dr. Ambedkar Foundation: January, 2014 p.109.

(9) A Sanskrit -English Dictionary, by Sir Monier Monier-Williams, Oxford University Press, Amen house, London. 1956, 1960, p. 1249.

(10) Srimad Bhagavatam, 4.2.28-29.

(11) Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva 5, Section 102.

(12) Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva 5, Section 98.

(13) Valmiki-Ramayana, Uttarakhanda 7, Sarga 42, Verses 18-23.

(14) Valmiki-Ramayana, Ayodhya Kanda 2, Sarga 55, verses 19-20.

(15) Mahabharata, Vana Parva 3, Section 145, Verse 86.

(16) Mahabharata, Virata Parva 4, Section 72, Verses 19-28

(17) Padma Purana, V., 89, 53-59a

(18) Brahma Purana, 100.11-14

(19) Mahabharata, Virata Parva 4, Section 6, Verse 18

(20) Shiva Purana, Rudra Samhita 2, Yuddha Khanda section 5, Ch 38, verses 1-3

(21) Padma Purana II.103.110-113


tags: alcohol / avesta / brahman / chandogya / combination-of-islam-and-hinduism / common-things-in-islam-and-hinduism / compare-and-contrast-islam-and-hinduism-essay / dharma / difference-between-islam-and-hinduism / difference-between-islam-and-hinduism-pdf / ethical-standards-of-islam-and-hinduism / heaven / hinduism / hinduism-and-islam-book-pdf / hinduism-and-islam-god-is-one / hinduism-and-islam-relations / hinduism-and-islam-the-common-thread / hinduism-and-islam-the-common-thread-pdf / hinduism-vs-islam-religion / history-of-islam-and-hinduism / homa / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-alike / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-different / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-similar / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-the-same / how-old-is-islam-and-hinduism / in-what-region-did-islam-and-hinduism-meet / indra / intoxicant / islam / islam-about-hinduism / islam-and-hinduism-by-zakir-naik-pdf / islam-and-hinduism-common / islam-and-hinduism-comparison-chart / islam-and-hinduism-conflict-in-india / islam-and-hinduism-connection / islam-and-hinduism-essay / islam-and-hinduism-in-india / islam-and-hinduism-pdf / islam-and-hinduism-similarities / islam-and-hinduism-venn-diagram / islam-aur-hinduism / islam-aur-hinduism-me-yaksaniyat / islam-buddhism-hinduism-judaism-christianity / islam-buddhism-hinduism-similarities / islam-copied-hinduism / islam-e-hinduismo / islam-from-hinduism / islam-hinduism-christianity / islam-hinduism-comparison / islam-in-hinduism-books / islam-o-hinduismo / islam-on-hinduism / islam-or-hinduism-which-is-older / islam-origin-hinduism / islam-over-hinduism / islam-prophet-hinduism / islam-quran-hinduism / islam-to-hinduism / islam-to-hinduism-conversion / islam-to-hinduism-converts / islam-vs-hinduism-chart / islam-vs-hinduism-history / islam-vs-hinduism-in-hindi / islam-vs-hinduism-vs-buddhism / judaism-and-hinduism-islam / mahabharata / mix-of-islam-and-hinduism / narcotic / paradise / puranas / rama / religion-that-combines-islam-and-hinduism / shiva / sikhism-mixture-of-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-between-hinduism-and-islam-dr-zakir-naik / similarities-between-hinduism-islam-and-judaism / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism-by-dr-zakir-naik / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism-pdf / similarities-of-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-with-islam-and-hinduism / sin / soma / upanishad / veda / what-do-islam-and-hinduism-have-in-common / what-do-islam-and-hinduism-in-fact-represent / what-does-hinduism-islam-and-judaism-have-in-common / what-does-islam-and-hinduism-have-in-common / wine / yajur / zoroastrians /



title: Ghunghat Or Hijab in Hinduism and Islam,
content:

In this article, we will talk about modesty, shyness and Hijab (purdah) for woman in Hinduism and Islam.  It is noteworthy that Hinduism has some religious instructions on the modesty in general?

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Valuable things are always covered for their value and preservation and the same is hijab for women.

Some historians think that purdah has been introduced to the Indian society since the Muslim’s advent in Indian peninsula, before that there was no trace of purdah for the Indian woman. While some Hindu brothers support the idea that purdah in its border sense was a symbol of modesty in India since the Vedic period. Ghunghat is nothing but another name of purdah in Hindi. Also, the Sanskrit and Hindi literature is rich of vocabulary denoting the purdah which is a sign of originality of idea in Hindu culture.

During this study, I came to read an article in Hindi on the concept of ghunghat in the Hindu culture in the light of Hindu scriptures proving existence of veil in ancient India. However, the article has attracted a lot of comments by Hindu visitors refuting the idea of the writer and falsifying the veil in Hinduism. However, my conclusion on the subject is that the references are not enough to prove the obligation of purdah in Hinduism in general. Those references are just signs and indications not clear and general rule for the subject.

But the references are presented here for our readers:

Ghunghat in Ramayana

The Valmiki Ramayana is considered by the followers of Sanatan Dharma as one of their theology sources. It has been said in this scripture that after the Lanka victory, when Sitaji was brought from Ashok Vatika to Rama by Vibhishan, Rama became angry at the efforts to remove the crowd of Sita’s devotees, and said:

व्यसनेषु न कृच्छ्रेषु न युद्धेषु स्वयंवरे।

न क्रतौ नो विवाहे वा दर्शनं दूष्यते स्त्रिया: ।। (1)

(In times of adversity, on the occasions of physical or mental suffering, in war, in self-interest, in marriage, the presence of women in Yajna appearing to others is not a matter of blame.)

So, in normal condition, appearing woman to strangers is blameworthy according to the text.

The veil was also present at that time, after the death of Ravan, the Queen Mandodari and other queens reached on foot to the battlefield mourning. Maharani Mandodari says:

दृष्टा न खल्वभिक्रुद्धो मामिहानवगुण्ठिताम्।

निर्गतां नगरद्वारात् पद्भ्यामेवागतां प्रभो।। (2)

(O Lord, today I do not have a veil on my face, I have come here on foot from the city gate. Why do not you get angry by seeing me in this condition?)

Ravana and Ram’s Cultural Affiliation

In fact, Ravana and Ram belonged to the same religion and the same culture, the only difference was that the first one was demon, evil and cruel while the other was just and compassionate. Ram was a Kshatriya and Ravan was a Brahmin, grandson of Rishi Pulastya and son of Rishi Vaishhava and the practice of ghunghat (veil) was common in both communities. It is evident from the examples of Sita and Mandodari that at the time of Rishi Valmiki when he had composed his Ramayana in India, especially amongst the upper-class women, the ghunghat (veil) system was prevalent. This period may be the third or fourth century BC.

Hijab or Veil in Vedas

In addition, it is mentioned in the Rig Veda: “When Brahma has made you a woman, you should lower your gaze and should not look up. You should put your feet together and you should not reveal what the garment and the veil conceal.” (3)

We find in the above-mentioned text some beautiful instructions for a woman: (a)a woman should lower her gaze. (b) she should put short steps while she walks to avoid exposure of adornments in her feet.

It is further mentioned in Rig Veda “Unlovely is the person or the husband who covers his thighs with the garment of his wife.” (4)

Here, the Rig Veda says that wearing the clothes of the opposite sex is prohibited.

in addition, Rama Commands Sita: “When Purshuram comes, Rama tells his wife Sita that “He is our elder, please lower your gaze, and put on the veil. “(5)

These are the proofs referred by the supporters of ghunghat in Hinduism.

Hijab in the Glorious Qur’an

The Glorious Qur’an has instructions on hijab for woman in detailed and clear manner as you can see in the following text of Qur’an.

The Glorious Qur’an says:

“Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and guard their private parts. That is purer for them. Indeed, Allah is Acquainted with what they do. And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and guard their private parts and not expose their adornment except that which [necessarily] appears thereof and to wrap [a portion of] their headcovers over their chests and not expose their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers, their brothers’ sons, their sisters’ sons, their women, that which their right hands possess, or those male attendants having no physical desire, or children who are not yet aware of the private aspects of women. And let them not stamp their feet to make known what they conceal of their adornment. And turn to Allah in repentance, all of you, O believers, that you might succeed.” (Surah An-Noor:30-31)

After reading both texts on ghunghat in Ramayana and Veda and hijab in Islam, we see clear similarities between the commandments of both religions. At the same time, we find very important details in the commands of Qur’an that is very brief in Vedas.

  1. The Glorious Qur’an commands both; men and women to lower their gaze, not only for men.
  2. The Glorious Qur’an commands to guard their private parts from prohibited acts.
  3. The Glorious Qur’an has commanded woman to cover their whole body and not to expose their adornment to strangers.
  4. The Glorious Qur’an has mentioned that the adornment of a woman can appear to some close relatives and attendees who are children.

However, the Islamic purdah and the Hindu ghunghat differ from each other in many aspects:

(1) The Islamic purdah is from outsiders and strangers, not from blood relatives and not from father in law. On the contrary, Hindu ghunghat is also from the relatives and strangers.

(2) The Islamic purdah is for female, only if she is adult, whether she is a daughter-in-law or a daughter. While Hindu ghunghat is only for a woman in her husband’s house, not for the daughters in her father’s house, whether she is married or unmarried.

(3) The Islamic purdah is based on the commands and teachings in the Glorious Qur’an and Sayings of the Prophet (peace be upon him) while Hindu ghunghat is based on social practice and custom, not on religious scripture.

(4) Hindu ghunghat is also from some women. In Rajasthan, Bengal and Mithila daughter in law veils from her mother in law out of respect.

(5) According to Hindu practice, the daughter-in-law will veil from her father in law, she will do the same with her husband’s elder brother, but she will not veil from her husband’s younger brother. And every male in the whole village who is older than her husband will be treated like her own elder brother in law and everyone who is younger than her husband would be treated like her own younger brother in law.  However, according to Islamic law, she must veil from brother in law, younger or older if he is adult.

(6) According to some Hindu brothers, ghunghat is only a symbol of respect and honor for the elder and head of the family. Therefore, a daughter in law will do veil from her mother in law.

—————————–

  1. वाल्मीकीय रामायण, भाग- 2, सर्ग 114.
  2. वाल्मीकीय रामायण, भाग-2 , सर्ग 111.
  3. Rig Veda Book no. 10 Hymn no. 85 V. no.30
  4. Rig Veda Book no. 8 Hymn no. 33V. no. 19
  5. Maha veera Chritra Act 2 page on 71.

tags: combination-of-islam-and-hinduism / common-things-in-islam-and-hinduism / compare-and-contrast-islam-and-hinduism-essay / difference-between-islam-and-hinduism / difference-between-islam-and-hinduism-pdf / ethical-standards-of-islam-and-hinduism / ghunghat / hijab / hinduism / hinduism-and-islam-book-pdf / hinduism-and-islam-god-is-one / hinduism-and-islam-relations / hinduism-and-islam-the-common-thread / hinduism-and-islam-the-common-thread-pdf / hinduism-vs-islam-religion / history-of-islam-and-hinduism / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-alike / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-different / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-similar / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-the-same / how-old-is-islam-and-hinduism / in-what-region-did-islam-and-hinduism-meet / indian / islam / islam-about-hinduism / islam-and-hinduism-by-zakir-naik-pdf / islam-and-hinduism-common / islam-and-hinduism-comparison-chart / islam-and-hinduism-connection / islam-and-hinduism-essay / islam-and-hinduism-in-india / islam-and-hinduism-pdf / islam-aur-hinduism / islam-aur-hinduism-me-yaksaniyat / islam-buddhism-hinduism-judaism-christianity / islam-buddhism-hinduism-similarities / islam-copied-hinduism / islam-e-hinduismo / islam-from-hinduism / islam-hinduism-christianity / islam-hinduism-comparison / islam-in-hinduism-books / islam-o-hinduismo / islam-on-hinduism / islam-or-hinduism-which-is-older / islam-origin-hinduism / islam-over-hinduism / islam-prophet-hinduism / islam-quran-hinduism / islam-to-hinduism / islam-to-hinduism-conversion / islam-to-hinduism-converts / islam-vs-hinduism-chart / islam-vs-hinduism-history / islam-vs-hinduism-in-hindi / islam-vs-hinduism-vs-buddhism / judaism-and-hinduism-islam / mix-of-islam-and-hinduism / purdah / quran / ramayana / religion-that-combines-islam-and-hinduism / sikhism-mixture-of-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-between-hinduism-and-islam-dr-zakir-naik / similarities-between-hinduism-islam-and-judaism / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism-by-dr-zakir-naik / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism-pdf / similarities-of-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-with-islam-and-hinduism / veda / veil / what-do-islam-and-hinduism-have-in-common / what-do-islam-and-hinduism-in-fact-represent / what-does-hinduism-islam-and-judaism-have-in-common / what-does-islam-and-hinduism-have-in-common / woman / %e0%a4%98%e0%a5%82%e0%a4%82%e0%a4%98%e0%a4%9f / %e0%a4%aa%e0%a4%b0%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%a6%e0%a4%be / %e0%a4%b8%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%a4%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%b0%e0%a5%80 /



title: Islam: A Divine Blessing for Hindu Girls,
content:

By Aisha Stacey

"Hindu

Islam exalted the position of woman as she was considered a means of amusement, and remained deprived of her humanity for long times.

This article deals with the issue of girls or female in both religions: Hinduism and Islam.

Hinduism(1) is the third largest religion in the world, with more than 950 million adherents. Although Hindus live predominantly in India and Nepal, they are scattered throughout the world. In some ways Hinduism and Islam can be thought of as polar opposites. Two of the most basic beliefs of Hinduism conflict completely with the most basic beliefs of Islam. In Islam worship is for One God, Muslims do not worship idols, statues or representations of God. Hindus, on the other hand worship many gods and deities.(For more information on this subject, please, click here.)

Muslims believe that we each have one life, upon which we will be judged and rewarded or punished accordingly, whereas Hindus believe in reincarnation, the process of rebirth and the transmigration of souls. In this article we will talk about the status of women in Hinduism and compare it with the teachings of Islam.(For more information on this subject, please, click here.)

Women in India suffer from a wide range of social injustices and the status of women is usually discussed on a nationwide basis. However it is important to note that more than 80% of Indians are Hindu and the majority of negative behaviors towards women can be attributed to Hindu practices. Indian women rank high in worldwide statistics on prostitution, the murder, neglect and abuse of young girls, the number of women sold into slavery, as victims of AIDS, and living below the poverty line.

Infanticide, the killing of a child soon after birth, has been prevalent in India for centuries. In 1834 it was reported that, “in some villages, no girl babies were found at all; in a total of thirty others, there were 343 boys to 54 girls.” One hundred and fifty years later the killing of girl babies has been streamlined. In a 2007 article, Reuters reported on the high level of female feticide (the practice of aborting female fetuses) in India. According to UNICEF, ‘A report from Bombay in 1984 on abortions after prenatal sex determination stated that 7,999 out of 8,000 of the aborted fetuses were female.

Reuters also reports that “Around 10 million girls have been killed by their parents over the last 20 years. Female infanticide and feticide, although illegal, are still prevalent with boys preferred to girls.” A 2006 government survey found that 45 percent of girls were married before the legal marriageable age of 18. India’s adult female literacy rate in 2004 was 47.8%, compared to the adult male rate of 73.4%. What is it about Hinduism that allows such blatant discrimination against an entire gender?

Some argue that the Hindu scriptures allow such practices. An obsession with sons stems from the age of Atharva Veda when it was written “Let a female child be born somewhere else. Here let a son be born.” However Hindus believe that all life is sacred, to be loved and revered, although this appears to not make a great deal of sense, it does, in the sense that Hinduism is a mixture of religious and cultural practices. The Hindu religion calls for rituals to be conducted in honor of women yet at the same time, women are denied any form of last rights at death or a fair share in family inheritance. In a letter to an Indian newspaper in 2002 one woman tried to explain the increase in feticide.

In India marrying a girl off is very expensive and the boy children bring home a bride and a dowry. Also Hindu law requires that only a SON may light the funeral pyre of their mother and father. We all know it is very costly to marry off a girl whereas the marriage of a son brings back whatever has been spent on him since his birth. This is a fact and unless this is addressed to, female feticide cannot be stopped.

Baby boys are desired, whereas, girl babies are despised. In the Arabian Peninsula before the advent of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and Islam, baby girls were buried alive. This was an ignorant practice and the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) stated unreservedly that female children are a blessing and that raising them to be righteous believers is a source of great reward. In the Glorious Qur’an, Allah the Almighty declares those who despise daughters as evil.

And when one of them is informed of [the birth of] a female, his face becomes dark, and he suppresses grief. He hides himself from the people because of the ill of which he has been informed. Should he keep it in humiliation or bury it in the ground? Unquestionably, evil is what they decide. (An-Nahl 16:58-59)

 

The traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) show very clearly that raising girls is a source of pleasure both in this life and in the Hereafter. His beloved wife `Aa’ishah relates stories that demonstrate the desirability of female babies.

A lady along with her two daughters came to me (`Aa’ishah) asking for some alms, but she found nothing with me except one date which I gave to her and she divided it between her two daughters, and did not eat anything herself, and then she got up and went away. Then the Prophet (peace be upon him) came in and I informed him about this story. He said: “Whoever raises daughters and treats them generously (with benevolence) then these daughters will act as a shield from Hell-Fire for them.”(Al-Bukhari).

“Whenever a child was born among them, `Aa’ishah would not ask if it was a boy or a girl. Instead she would ask: ‘Is the child healthy (and without defect)?’ If she was told: ‘Yes,’ she would say: ‘All praise is for Allah, Lord of All the Worlds.’”

A common social ailment amongst the Hindus is the practice of the bride’s family paying a dowry to her new husband’s family. Although this practice was formerly outlawed in 1961, it is still pervasive.

Due to the difficulties and hardships that dowries cause and the humiliations and dishonor inflicts a girl, Islam has no such custom or requirement. Instead, Islam has what is known as the mahr. It is a gift of money, possessions or property made by the husband to the wife, which becomes her exclusive property. It is an admission of her independence, and is intended to show the husband’s willing acceptance of bearing all the necessary expenses of his wife.

As you can see from two examples, the status of women in Islam is very different to the status of women in Hinduism. While one religion, Hinduism, claims to honor women, it is up to the secular Indian government to make laws forbidding the atrocious treatment Hinduism allows. On the other hand respect for women is enshrined in Islamic law.

If a Hindu girl is really eager for the true liberty, honor, security and spiritual peace, she can enjoy all those blessing in the shade of Islamic rulings that have no room for any sort of discriminatory or oppressive ethnic constitution against the feminine gender.  

Islam is a blessing for a Hindu girl even when she is a fetus in the womb of her mother, because Islam secures her from being aborted as such heinous act is strictly forbidden by Islamic Ruling. Islam is a blessing for a Hindu girl when she is a marriageable woman, because Islam prohibits any kind of excessive expenses in marriage and Islam saves her from the curse of dowry that leads many girls in Hindu society to commit suicide, instead of that, Islam urges a bridegroom to present gift to his bride during the marriage contract. Islam is a blessing for a Hindu girl when she is a widow because Islam forbids burning a widow with her husband’s funeral pyre as well as Islam allows her for second marriage after her husband’s death. Islam is a blessing for Hindu girl when she is a mother as Islam regards that Paradise lies under the feet of mothers. In fact, Islam has honored woman in all stages of her life, rather, Islam has breathed a life into the dead and oppressed being of a female gender.

 _________________________________

Footnotes:

[1] Except for specific quotations the majority of the information about Hinduism is obtained from the following web sites. (http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/hinduism/ataglance/glance.shtml) (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2122.html) (http://www.religioustolerance.org/hinduism4.htm). (www.religiousconsultation.org) (www.sanatana-dharma.tripod.com) (www.religionfacts.com)

__________________

Source: Taken from www.islamreligion.com with modifications.


tags: amarnath / arya-samaj / banaras / dayanad / dowry / feminism / ganga / hindu / hindu-gods / hinduism / hindus / idolatry / kumbh-maila / lakshami / lakshmi / lekhram / parvati / polygamy / rights-of-woman / sarasvati / sati / shivling / sita / tirath / varanasi / widows / woman / women-in-islam / yamuna / yatra /



title: The Rights of Women in Islam and Hinduism,
content:

Hindu Woman:

"Never

Never will I allow to be lost the work of [any] worker among you, whether male or female. (Aal `Imran3:195)

1. The Hindu Woman has no right to divorce her husband.
2. She has no property or inheritance rights.
3. Choice of partner is limited because she can only marry within her own caste. Moreover, her horoscope must match that of the intending bridegroom or his family.
4. The family of the girl has to offer an enormous dowry to the bridegroom or his family.
5. If her husband dies she should commit Sati (being cremated with her dead husband). Since today’s law forbids Sati, society mainly punishes her in other “holy” ways, as would be explained below.
6. She cannot remarry.
7. The widow is considered to be a curse and must not be seen in public. Also she cannot wear jewelry or colorful clothes. She should not even take part in her children’s marriage.
8. Child and infant marriage is encouraged.

Muslim Woman:

1. The Muslim woman has the same right as the Muslim man in all matters including divorce, as Islamic Shari`ah gives her the right of Khul`a, that is a kind of separation from her husband .
2. She enjoys property and inheritance rights. Which other religion grants women these rights? She can also conduct her own separate business.
3. She can marry any Muslim of her choice. If her parents choose a partner for her, her consent must be taken.
4. The dowry in Islam is a gift from a husband to his wife.
5. A Muslim widow is encouraged to remarry, and her remarriage is the responsibility of the Muslim society.
6. Mixed marriage or marrying outside of one’s social group is encouraged and is a means to prevent racism creeping in society.
7. A Muslim mother is given the highest form of respect.
What right do the Hindus have to criticize the Muslims? Have you ever heard of a Muslim burning his wife? In parts of India, women die daily of dowry deaths; Hindu women being burnt by the husband or in-laws. The Brahmins are trying to claim that Muslims do not give freedom to their women. I ask you again. “Do the Hindus respect their women?”
You be the judge.
Sister Noor: A Converted Hindu Woman Find that Islam does not Oppress Women
she says:
I came from a purely Hindu family where we were always taught to regard ourselves (i.e. women) as beings who were eventually to be married off and have children and serve the husband , whether he was kind or not. Other than this I found that there were a lot of things which really oppressed women, such as:
* If a woman was widowed, she would always have to wear a white Sari, eat vegetarian meals, cut her hair short, and never re-marry. The bride always had to pay the dowry (bridal money) to the husband’s family. And the husband could ask for anything, irrespective of whether the bride would have difficulty in the payment.

The Curse of Dowry in Hindu Society

* Not only that, if after marriage she was not able to pay the full dowry she would be both emotionally and physically tortured, and could end up being a victim of “kitchen death” where the husband, or both the mother-in-law and the husband try to set fire to the wife while she is cooking or is in the kitchen, and try to make it look like an accidental death. More and more of these instances are taking place. The daughter of a friend of my own father’s had the same fate last year!
Worship of a Particular Deity for the Marriage of a Hindu Girl
* In addition to all this, men in Hinduism are treated literally as among the gods. In one of the religious Hindu celebrations, unmarried girls pray for and worship an idol representing a particular god (Shira) so that they may have husbands like him. Even my own mother had asked me to do this. This made me see that the Hindu religion which is based on superstitions and things that have no manifest proof, but were merely traditions which oppressed women could not be right.

Are Women Oppressed in West ?

Subsequently, when I came to England to study, I thought that at least this is a country which gives equal rights to men and women, and does not oppress them. We all have the freedom to do as we like, I thought. Well, as I started to meet people and make new friends, learn about this new society, and go to all the places my friends went to in order to “socialize” (bars, dance halls, etc.). I realized that this “equality” was not so true in practice as it was in theory.
Outwardly, women were seen to be given equal rights in education, work and so forth, but in reality women were still oppressed in a different, more subtle way. When I went with my friends to those places they hung out at, I found everybody interested to talk to me and I thought that was normal. But it was only later that I realized how naive I was, and recognized what these people were really looking for. I soon began to feel uncomfortable, as if I was not myself: I had to dress in a certain way so that people would like me, and had to talk in a certain way to please them. I soon found that I was feeling more and more uncomfortable, less and less myself, yet I could not get out. Everybody was saying they were enjoying themselves, but I don’t call this enjoying.
I think women in this way of life are oppressed; they have to dress in a certain way in order to please and appear more appealing, and also talk in a certain way so people like them. During this time, I had not thought about Islam, even though I had some Muslim acquaintances. But I felt I really had to do something, to find something that I would be happy and secure with, and would feel respected with. Something to believe in that is the right belief, because everybody has a belief that they live according to. If having fun by getting off with other people is someone’s belief, they do this. If making money is someone’s belief, they do everything to achieve this. If they believe drinking is one way to enjoy life then they do it. But I feel all this leads to nowhere. No one is truly satisfied and the respect women are looking for is diminishing in this way.
In these days of so called “society of equal rights”, you are expected to have a boyfriend (or you’re weird!) and to not be a virgin. So this is a form of oppression even though some women do not realize it. When I came to Islam, it was obvious that I had finally found permanent security. A religion, a belief that was so complete and clear in every aspect of life. Many people have a misconception that Islam is an oppressive religion, where women are covered from head to toe and they are not allowed any freedom or rights. In fact, women in Islam are given more rights and have been for the past 1400 years, compared to the only-recently rights given to non-Muslim women in some western and some other societies. But there are, even now, societies where women are still oppressed, as I mentioned earlier in relation to Hindu women.

What are the Rights of Women in Islam?

Muslim women have the right to inheritance. They have the right to run their own trade and business. They have the full right to ownership, property, disposal over their wealth to which the husband has no right. They have the right to education, a right to refuse marriage as long as this refusal is according to reasonable and justifiable grounds. The Glorious Qur’an itself, which is the Word of God, contains many verses commanding men to be kind to their wives and stressing the rights of women. Islam gives the right set of rules, because they are not made by men, but made by God; hence it is a perfect religion.
Why Muslim Women are Covered from Head to Toe?
Quite often Muslim women are asked why they are covered from head to toe, and are told that this is oppression – it is not. In Islam, marriage is an important part of life, the making of the society. Therefore, a woman should not go around showing herself to everybody, only for her husband. Even the man is not allowed to show certain parts of his body to none but his wife. In addition, Allah (Glory be to Him) has commanded Muslim women to cover themselves for their modesty:
O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) over their bodies (when outdoors). That is most convenient that they could be known as such (i.e. decent and chaste) and not molested. (Al-Ahzab33:59)
If we look around at any other society, we find that in the majority of cases women are attacked and molested because of how they are dressed. Another point I’d like to comment on is that the rules and regulation laid down in Islam by Allah do not apply just to women but to men also. There is no intermingling and free-running between men and women for the benefit of both. Whatever Allah commands is right, wholesome, pure and beneficial to mankind; there is no doubt about that. A verse in the Glorious Qur’an explains this concept clearly:
Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and protect their private parts (i.e. from indecency, illegal sexual acts, etc.); that will make for greater purity for them. And God is well aware of what they do. And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and protect their private parts (from indecency, illegal sexual intercourse, etc.); and that they should not display their beauty and ornaments.( An-Nur 24:31)

What is Hijab?

When I put on my hijab (veil), I was really happy to do it. In fact, I really want to do it. When I put on the hijab, I felt a great sense of satisfaction and happiness. I am satisfied because I had obeyed Allah’s command and I am happy with the good and blessings that come with it. I have felt secure and protected. In fact, people respect me more for it. I could really see the difference in behavior towards me.
Finally, I’d like to say that I had accepted Islam not blindly, or under any compulsion. In the Glorious Qur’an itself there is a verse which says:
Let there be no compulsion in religion. (Al-Baqarah2:256)

Satisfaction with Islam:

I accepted Islam with conviction. I have seen, been there, done that, and seen both sides of the story. I know and have experienced what the other side is like, and I know that I have done the right thing. Islam does not oppress women, but rather Islam liberates them and gives them the respect they deserve. Islam is the religion Allah has chosen for the whole of mankind. Those who accept it are truly liberated from the chains and shackles of mankind whose ruling and legislating necessitates nothing but the oppression of one group by another and the exploitation and oppression of one sex by the other. This is not the case of Islam which truly liberated women and gave them an individuality not given by any other authority.
_________________
Sister Noor embraced Islam while an undergraduate studying in the
Department of Biology at the University of Essex, U. K.
This article was taken from:www.sunniforum.com with modification.


tags: amarnath / aryasamaj / banaras / benazeer / dayanad / dowry / feminism / ganga / hindu / hindu-gods / hinduism / hindus / idolatry / indra-gandhi / kumbh-maila / lakshami / lakshmi / lekhram / malalah / parvati / polygamy / rights-of-woman / sania-mirza / sarasvati / sati / seeta / shivling / sita / sonia-gandhi / tirath / varanasi / widows / woman / women-in-islam / yamuna / yatra /



title: What Does Islam Give Woman?,
content:

"Diamond"

Islam gave woman a higher value than the diamond, while she was regarded by many religions of the world as an impure and inauspicious creature.

By Aisha Stacey

Fourteen hundred years ago Islam gave woman rights; rights that could not have been imagined by European counterparts.

It’s the words that have been spoken repeatedly, especially in the last two or three decades by Muslim converts, and Islamic writers, academics and educators across the globe.

Women’s rights, responsibilities, and choices have been the subject of books, articles, essays, and lectures. Sadly however, convincing the world that Muslim women are not oppressed by Islam is a message that is just not getting through.  Media headlines scream oppression and the words Muslim, women, and oppression seem to have become inextricably linked.

No matter what Muslim women do or say to try to convince the world otherwise, words like hijab (veil), burqa, polygamy, and Shari`ah (Islamic Law) seem to do little but convince people that Islam oppresses women. Even educated, articulate women fulfilling the modest conditions of hijab can do little to dispel the myths.

Women who conduct themselves with decorum and grace and function effortlessly in the modern world have their achievements and successes celebrated. However, if a woman wears a scarf that covers her hair or puts her religion above worldly pursuits she is immediately labeled oppressed.

One wonders if this is the case for women of other religious persuasions. Are modest religious women of all faiths labeled oppressed? Alternatively, is it just Islam?

The most visible sign of a Muslim woman’s faith is the headscarf or hijab; it is also the garment that leads people to believe that Islam oppresses women. Although Islamic scholars unanimously agree that modest dress and head coverings are obligatory in Islam, for the majority of Muslim women around the world, to cover, or not to cover, is a freely made choice.

The women who chose to wear hijab view it as a right, not a burden and many describe wearing hijab as liberation from the need to conform to unrealistic stereotypes and images dictated by the media.

What exactly do Muslim women say about themselves in relation to the issue of oppression? In 2005, a World Gallup Organization Poll, entitled ‘What women Want’:

‘Listening to the voices of Muslim woman, revealed that the majority of women polled, in predominantly Muslim countries resented lack of unity among Muslim nations, violent extremism, and political and economic corruption. The headscarf or hijab, or any garment covering the face and body, often depicted as a tool of oppression was not even mentioned.’

The report concluded that ’…most women in the Muslim world are well aware that they have the same capabilities and deserve the same fundamental rights as men.  Majorities of females in each of the eight countries surveyed said they believe women are able to make their own voting decisions, to work at any job for which they are qualified, and even to serve in the highest levels of government.’

Islam raised the level of women, they were no longer chattels being passed from father to husband. They became equal to men, with rights and responsibilities that take into account the nature of humankind. Unfortunately across the globe, Muslim women are victims of cultural aberrations that have no place in Islam. Powerful individuals and groups claim to be Muslim yet fail to practice the true principles of Islam.

Whenever the media reveals unconscionable stories about honour killings, genital mutilation, forced marriage, the punishment of rape victims, women being confined to their homes or women being denied education they are revealing a tale of men and women who are ignorant about the status of women in Islam.

O you who believe!  You are forbidden to inherit women against their will, and you should not treat them with harshness, that you may take away part of the bridal money you have given them. And live with them honourably.  If you dislike them, it may be that you dislike a thing and God brings a great deal of good through it. (An-Nisaa’ 4:19)

The religion of Islam demands that women be treated with respect, honour, and justice. It condemns oppression of any kind. In Islam women, like men, are commanded to believe in Allah and to worship Him. Women are equal to men in terms of reward in the Hereafter.

And whoever does righteous good deeds, male or female, and is a true believer in the Oneness of God, such will enter paradise; and not the least injustice, even to the size of a speck on the back of a date stone, will be done to them. (An-Nisaa’ 4:124)

Women in Islam have the right to own property, to control their own money to buy and sell, and to give gifts and charity. It is not permissible for anyone to take a woman’s wealth without her consent. Islam gave women formal rights of inheritance.  Women in Islam have the right to an education; seeking and acquiring knowledge is an obligation on all Muslims, male or female.

Muslim women have the right to accept or refuse marriage proposals as they see fit, and married women are completely free from the obligation of supporting and maintaining the family. Working married women are free to contribute to the household expenses, or not, as they see fit. Women have the right to seek divorce if it becomes necessary.

The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “A matron should not be given in marriage except after consulting her; and a virgin should not be given in marriage except after her permission.” The people asked: “O Messenger of Allah!  How can we know her permission?” He said: “Her silence (indicates her permission).” (Al-Bukhari)

A woman was given by her father in marriage when she was a matron and she disliked that marriage. So she went to the Messenger of Allah and he declared that marriage invalid. (Al-Bukhari)

The religion of Islam declares that women are worthy human beings deserving of respect, and the right to be free from oppression. Women have the right to a decent life, without facing aggression or abuse of any kind. They have the right to pursue a life that is pleasing to them within Islamic boundaries. Nobody has the right to force women to be less then they want to be. The true teachings of Islam, declare that women should be held in a position of high regard.

Sadly, it is true that some Muslim women are oppressed, but across the globe, some women are treated badly by some men, of all religious persuasions and ethnicities.  It is possible to say that such and such a government oppresses women, or that Muslim men in such and such a country think it is acceptable to beat women, however,  it is not correct to say that Islam oppresses women.

If women were given their due rights, as set out in the religion of Islam, the global oppression of women could be trampled into oblivion.

The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)said: “None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women disgracefully.” (At-Tirmidhi)

For information about woman in Hinduism, please, click here.

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Source: islamreligion.com


tags: divorce / divorcee / dress-code / equality-of-woman / equity / hijab / hindu-widows / islamic-law / modesty / niyog / oppression / parvati / polygamy / sati / second-marriage / shariah / true-religion-of-islam / veil / woman-rights-in-islam / woman-status-in-islam /



title: Animal Worship in Hinduism,
content:

This article tries to introduce some of the animals worshiped by Hindus and have been regarded as holy due to social and religious reasons. This is a presentation only that does not intend to criticize or condemnation here.""

Hulool and ittihad in Hinduism

The philosophy of Hulool (union with the divine) and ittihad (incarnation) in Hinduism is essence of Hindu Dharm. Hulool means advent of God on earth in any form of the creation and ittihad refers to ascension of human-being into the divine or union of creation with the Creator. Both concepts are deep-rooted in Hindu philosophy. Basically,    Hulool is mother of all sorts of polytheism in Hindu society. If the immortal comes in the form of mortal, the mortal becomes sacred and a deity for the Hindus because of the contact and association of God with the thing.

Hindus have developed to ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu. From water born fish they took it to amphibian turtle. From Amphibian turtle, they took it to the next level of land animals- ‘pig’ avatar. Then half man half animal (Lion) Narasimha avatar, then humans with more and more intelligence. So, if Hindus worship countless forms or shapes, it is nothing strange to them.

Animal Worship in Hinduism

Hindu scriptures instruct that not only humans, but also animals must be treated equally. Just as humans feel grief and pain, so do animals and feel the pain and grief. Therefore, a rule has been laid down to take proper care of them. People who take care of animals also get endless virtue and reward.

And animal mercy is also a matter of Islam, and there is a promise of great reward for that.  But in Hinduism, there are some animals that have been told to be worshiped. We will mention here some of those animals.

Snake as a Deity in Hinduism

According to the Hindu scriptures or Shastras, snake is a beloved creature to the Hindu God Shiva. Shiva appears in Hindu mythology, wearing the snake around his neck and that is why snake is worshiped by some Hindus. It is noteworthy that snake is worshiped fully on Nag Panchami Hindu festival every year.

Cow a Deity in Hinduism

Hindus believe that all gods and goddesses reside in the cow’s body. That is why cow is considered sacred and holy in Hinduism. A person who worships cow regularly gets all the happiness. Hindus regard its excreta; urine and dung pure and purifier. And this is only for the cow not for buffalo or other animals.

Bull a Worshiped Deity in Hinduism  

Bull is the riding animal of the Hindu God Shiva and for this reason bull is worshiped by Hindus. In rural areas, the agricultural work starts with the worship of the bull, because with the help of the bull, agricultural works are completed.

Elephant a God in Hinduism

Elephant is considered a symbol of the Hindu God Ganesha. The head and face of Ganesha are also similar to that of the elephant that is why elephant is worshiped in Hinduism. A devotee who regularly worships the elephant receives the grace of the Hindu God Ganesh.

Horse a Deity in Hinduism

In ancient times, whenever kings and princes used to go on a war, before that they used to worship horses. It was believed that worshiping horses give victory and causes defeat the enemies in the war. Recently, when India bought some fighter jets, Indian Defense Minister performed ‘Shastra Puja’, on the Rafale combat jet.

Mare as a Deity in Hinduism

Mare or female horse is also worshiped in Hinduism.  During the marriage, the groom rides the mare and before that the mare is worshiped. Only after worshiping, the groom is allowed to ride the mare. It is an ancient tradition that has been considered auspicious in Hinduism. In this regard, it is believed that by keeping this tradition, the bride and groom’s marital life will be full of happiness and prosperity.(1)

Monkey a Hindu God

Monkey is believed by Hindus as the form of God Hanuman or Bajrang Bali, the god of power and strength. Many Indian temples like Durga Temple, Varanasi and famous Monkey Temple,  Galta, Jaipur is the home for thousands of monkeys. The biggest monkey is known as Langur or Hanuman Langur, is the most sacred in India. There is a famous Ubud Monkey Forest and temple complex in Ubud, Bali ""which is one of the most tourist-attraction in Bali and Swayambhunath in Nepal.

Tiger A Deity in Hinduism

The Royal Bengal Tiger “National Symbols of India” is one of the sacred animals in India. The National animal of India Tiger and Great Lion are the vehicle of Hindu deity “Maa Durga“. The Bengal tiger is worshiped by the tribes and by the sundervan people.

Tortoise A Hindu God

Kurmavatar, an incarnation of Hindu God Vishnu is the oldest tortoise according to Hindu Mythology. But we have even Rishis (seers) in the name of frog (manduka)owl (Uluka) and tortoise (Kasyapa)in Vedic literature. Kasyapa is one of the Vedic Rishis. Kasyapa means tortoise. Kashmir is named after Kasyapa Rishi. Kumaon hills in the Himalayas is named after Kurma Avatar. We have Kurmavatar statues in Kahajuraho Lakshman temple (M.P) and Osiyan temple in Rajasthan. One exclusive temple for Kurmavatar is near Srikakulam in Andhra Pradesh. (2)

__________________

(1) http://bit.ly/2QoE4yR (Last accessed on 27/12/2019).

(2) http://bit.ly/2ZwxiLJ (Last accessed on 27/12/2019)


tags: animal / avatar / bajrang-bali / bull / combination-of-islam-and-hinduism / common-things-in-islam-and-hinduism / compare-and-contrast-islam-and-hinduism-essay / comparison / conversion / cow / difference-between-islam-and-hinduism / difference-between-islam-and-hinduism-pdf / durga / ethical-standards-of-islam-and-hinduism / ganesha / god / hinduism / hinduism-and-islam-book-pdf / hinduism-and-islam-god-is-one / hinduism-and-islam-relations / hinduism-and-islam-the-common-thread / hinduism-and-islam-the-common-thread-pdf / hinduism-vs-islam-religion / history-of-islam-and-hinduism / horse / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-alike / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-different / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-similar / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-the-same / how-old-is-islam-and-hinduism / hulool / in-what-region-did-islam-and-hinduism-meet / incarnation / india / islam / islam-about-hinduism / islam-and-hinduism-by-zakir-naik / islam-and-hinduism-common / islam-and-hinduism-comparison-chart / islam-and-hinduism-conflict-in-india / islam-and-hinduism-connection / islam-and-hinduism-essay / islam-and-hinduism-in-india / islam-and-hinduism-pdf / islam-and-hinduism-similarities / islam-and-hinduism-venn-diagram / islam-aur-hinduism / islam-aur-hinduism-me-yaksaniyat / islam-buddhism-hinduism-judaism-christianity / islam-buddhism-hinduism-similarities / islam-copied-hinduism / islam-e-hinduismo / islam-from-hinduism / islam-hinduism-christianity / islam-hinduism-comparison / islam-in-hinduism-books / islam-o-hinduismo / islam-on-hinduism / islam-or-hinduism-which-is-older / islam-origin-hinduism / islam-over-hinduism / islam-prophet-hinduism / islam-quran-hinduism / islam-to-hinduism / islam-to-hinduism-conversion / islam-to-hinduism-converts / islam-vs-hinduism-chart / islam-vs-hinduism-history / islam-vs-hinduism-in-hindi / islam-vs-hinduism-vs-buddhism / ittihad / judaism / judaism-and-hinduism-islam / kasyapa / kurmavatar / lion / mare / mix-of-islam-and-hinduism / monkey / nagpanchami / religion / religion-that-combines-islam-and-hinduism / shastra-puja / sikhism / sikhism-mixture-of-islam-and-hinduism / similarities / similarities-between-hinduism-and-islam-dr-zakir-naik / similarities-between-hinduism-islam-and-judaism / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism-by-dr-zakir-naik / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism-pdf / similarities-of-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-with-islam-and-hinduism / snake / turtle / vishnu / what-do-islam-and-hinduism-have-in-common / what-do-islam-and-hinduism-in-fact-represent / what-does-hinduism-islam-and-judaism-have-in-common / what-does-islam-and-hinduism-have-in-common / worship / zakirnaik /



title: NRC and CAB A Hell for Muslims in India,
content:

This article tries to examine and explain different aspects of NRC and CAB, highlighting the fears and scares of Muslims in India in future."" The content is based on the latest and fair debates and arguments going on in India. During this week, India has seen heated protests and angry demonstrations in various states of India, including Delhi. Male and female students at the Jamia Millia Islamia in Delhi were beaten and hit by the Indian police for demonstrating against the new citizenship amendment bill that has been regarded by many as racist and discriminatory.

What is the NRC?

Recently, India has launched a program in Assam state “The National Register of Citizens” NRC. All residents were asked to register their names in that register and prove with documents that they are Indians and not foreigners. There was a time limit to prove their nationality with legal documents when the procedure finished the authorities came face to face to a bitter reality as they found about two million residents unsuccessful to prove their Indian nationality, including Muslims and non-Muslims, even some Indian military veterans, even names of some decedents of former President of India, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, (1905 – 1977) president of India from 1974 to 1977 were missing from the NRC and many others have failed to prove their nationality, though their parents and grandparents were born in India and never left the country, because there was no care for registering their births or nationality due to many reasons as is the situation in most of Indian rural areas. It is interesting to note that majority of those who failed to prove their nationality was non-Muslims and Indian authorities became worried about their fate that led them to another law or bill that can solve the problem. That is the act called CAB (Citizenship Amendment Bill).                  

What is the CAB or new law?

The new law or CAB (Citizenship Amendment Bill) offers citizenship to non-Muslims from three nearby countries. The bill mentions non-Muslims who will be included in the citizenship; Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians.  But the bill excludes only Muslims, so; no Muslim would get this privilege according to this amendment. This amendment has been refused by many parliament members; Muslims and non-Muslims because this amendment contradicts some basic Indian constitutions such as the act No. 14 of Indian constitution. Indian authorities have announced their plan to implement the NRC in its all states, and every resident will be asked to prove their citizenship with legal documents as was done in Assam and who will prove their nationality with papers will be regarded as Indian and who will fail to prove their nationality with legal documents would declared as foreigners and infiltrators and after that they be regarded as stateless people in India without any right and would be thrown in detention camps; the hell on this earth. It is definite that there will be a large number of people who will fail to prove their nationality as happened in Assam. However, the non-Muslims would be honored with citizenship in every state according to the controversial and discriminatory bill CAB that excludes only Muslims who will be sent to the detention camps with their wife, children, family and dependents where the death will better than the life. This is the major worries for Muslims in India and this is the cause of protests everywhere in India.

Why ONLY MUSLIMS were excluded?

According to Muslim politicians and religious leaders, the Hindu extremist groups and politicians fear that Muslims will become majority ""in فاث coming few decades and the Hindus will become minority. Hindus prefer to have only two children (Ham do, Hamare do) and family planning is more common among non-Muslims than Muslims in India due to religious, social and educational reasons. Hindu extremist political groups need more Hindu population to get votes in order to be in power but if Muslims become majority, they will not be in power, the fast and quick solution for this problem is to get rid of Muslim population as much as they can and to multiply the Hindu population as much as they can. To achieve this goal, they have passed the new citizenship bill to give nationality to Hindus and other minorities, every non-Hindu minority that will get the citizenship is expected to be and remain thankful for the political party that granted them this privilege, and thus, the vote bank will be stronger. In addition, the existing Hindu population will be happy with them, whom they see as their saviors and guards for their religion and culture. Additionally, it will be very easy to divert the people’s eyes and minds from serious financial problems, growing joblessness, urgent environmental issues, declining economy, etc.

Are the Worries of Hindus True?

However, the fears of Hindus are false and based on mere illusion, the Muslims are living in India since about 1000 years, even they ruled India around 800 years but Hindus remained always in majority, if Muslim population will grow, Hindu population will also grow as well in the same average of their population who are now 80% while Muslims are only 10% and their growth also will be slower and in the same level or percentage. So, there should not be such fears in the minds of Hindus.

Is CAB a Problem or Solution?

India is second largest population in the world after China and it will soon overtake China to become the most populous country in the world.

The fact is that India is unable to afford its present and recent population, let aside the extra immigrant citizens. Public services are very poor across India, education is less and illiteracy is on high, natural resources are on the brink, many Indian states are facing water problems, rather, many states will become uninhabitable for the life during few coming decades. Because of lawlessness and disorder it is said “India runs by itself, no one runs it”. If citizenship was granted so generously who will afford them? If you are so generous why are you depriving those honorable people of India who gave you Tajmahl, Lalqila, Charminar, who introduced you Kurta, Paijama, Shirvani, instead of Dhoti, who saved your daughter from infanticide, abortion and Sati and who contributed to advance your culture to the better in faith, practice, lifestyle and tradition.

Should be Muslims Worried on CAB?                  

Muslim leader say that the answer is yes; Muslim’s concern is valid, true and based on the ground reality in Assam. Because of the NRC people lived in hell and became worried about their fate. Instead of working for their daily livelihood, people ran around the offices, to collect their legal papers, many of them faced a lot of problems because of misspelled names, mistakes in father’s name or grandfather’s name. The mistakes in names are very common in India, Muslim names are very hard for the Hindu clerks to write or pronounce properly. I was told by one of my friend whose mother was traveling from Bihar to USA and the name in passport was different from the name in Adhar card and for this they faced a lot of problems on the airport. Will they cancel the ticket or would be allowed to travel? He and his mother were in Dilemma and undecided for hours.

It is very important to note that the CAB will protect Hindus who will not need any document, it is only enough for them to claim that they are from Pakistan, Bangladesh or Afghanistan and they are non-Muslim and they will be granted the Indian citizenship only condition for the Indian citizenship is not to be a Muslim. Because of this bill Hindus will be treated with kindness and mercy and Muslims will be treated in harsh and complicated manner.

Are the Non-Muslim Minorities Safe in India

The bill claims cooperation and mercy for the non-Muslim minorities who were persecuted in Muslim countries but the question is: are the minorities; Christians and Muslims safe in India? What will you say about the mob-lynching across India? Christians are always easy targets of Hindu extremists. If you failed to protect your own minorities how will you protect the new emigrants? The Hindu extremists are more dangerous to the minorities the Muslims in three mentioned countries.

Do or Die for Muslims:""

Muslims and many fair Hindu politicians see that Muslims will be insulted, oppressed and stripped of their rights in coming decades because of this bill. If this bill was passed and Muslims remained silent or accepted it now, their coming generations will be silent forever. But if they opposed it now, they and their coming generation will live in India honored and will get their equal rights without any fear or scare.

Indian authorities should withdraw this bill immediately, before it is too late. The tourism to India is declining, the transport system is penalized across the country, and business activities are lower. The religious slogans do not impress now, every Indian or at least every Indian home has access to the internet, they can verify the true and false promises and slogans. They are aware enough to be fooled by political leaders; even they can find contradiction of a politician through his own words in his previous videos and latest videos. All materials are available online. In my opinion, the truthful and unbiased leader is more likely to win always, specially, in this age.


tags: abortion / assam / buddhists / charminar / china / christians / citizenship / combination-of-islam-and-hinduism / common-things-in-islam-and-hinduism / compare-and-contrast-islam-and-hinduism-essay / delhi / detention / dhoti / difference-between-islam-and-hinduism / difference-between-islam-and-hinduism-pdf / discriminatory / ethical-standards-of-islam-and-hinduism / hinduism-and-islam-book-pdf / hinduism-and-islam-god-is-one / hinduism-and-islam-relations / hinduism-and-islam-the-common-thread / hinduism-and-islam-the-common-thread-pdf / hinduism-vs-islam-religion / hindus / history-of-islam-and-hinduism / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-alike / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-different / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-similar / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-the-same / how-old-is-islam-and-hinduism / in-what-region-did-islam-and-hinduism-meet / infanticide / islam-about-hinduism / islam-and-hinduism-by-zakir-naik-pdf / islam-and-hinduism-common / islam-and-hinduism-comparison-chart / islam-and-hinduism-conflict-in-india / islam-and-hinduism-connection / islam-and-hinduism-essay / islam-and-hinduism-in-india / islam-and-hinduism-pdf / islam-and-hinduism-similarities / islam-and-hinduism-venn-diagram / islam-aur-hinduism / islam-aur-hinduism-me-yaksaniyat / islam-buddhism-hinduism-judaism-christianity / islam-buddhism-hinduism-similarities / islam-copied-hinduism / islam-e-hinduismo / islam-from-hinduism / islam-hinduism-christianity / islam-hinduism-comparison / islam-in-hinduism-books / islam-o-hinduismo / islam-on-hinduism / islam-or-hinduism-which-is-older / islam-origin-hinduism / islam-over-hinduism / islam-prophet-hinduism / islam-quran-hinduism / islam-to-hinduism / islam-to-hinduism-conversion / islam-to-hinduism-converts / islam-vs-hinduism-chart / islam-vs-hinduism-history / islam-vs-hinduism-in-hindi / islam-vs-hinduism-vs-buddhism / islamia / jains / jamia / judaism-and-hinduism-islam / lalqila / millia / minorities / mix-of-islam-and-hinduism / mob-lynching / nationality / parsis / religion-that-combines-islam-and-hinduism / sikhism-mixture-of-islam-and-hinduism / sikhs / similarities-between-hinduism-and-islam-dr-zakir-naik / similarities-between-hinduism-islam-and-judaism / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism-by-dr-zakir-naik / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism-pdf / similarities-of-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-with-islam-and-hinduism / tajmahl / what-do-islam-and-hinduism-have-in-common / what-do-islam-and-hinduism-in-fact-represent / what-does-hinduism-islam-and-judaism-have-in-common / what-does-islam-and-hinduism-have-in-common / %e0%a4%85%e0%a4%ab%e0%a4%97%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%a8%e0%a4%bf%e0%a4%b8%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%a4%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%a8 / %e0%a4%a8%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%97%e0%a4%b0%e0%a4%bf%e0%a4%95 / %e0%a4%a8%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%97%e0%a4%b0%e0%a4%bf%e0%a4%95%e0%a4%a4%e0%a4%be / %e0%a4%aa%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%95%e0%a4%bf%e0%a4%b8%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%a4%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%a8 / %e0%a4%ac%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%82%e0%a4%97%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%b2%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%a6%e0%a5%87%e0%a4%b6 / %e0%a4%ad%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%b0%e0%a4%a4 / %e0%a4%ae%e0%a5%81%e0%a4%b8%e0%a4%b2%e0%a4%ae%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%a8 /



title: Name of the Religion: Hinduism and Islam (2/2),
content:

After we talked about the name of Hindu religion in first part of this article, we will talk in this part about the name of Islam: Is the name of Islam a divine revelation and inspiration from Allah the Almighty or the name just came from the imagination of humans? Does the ""name Islam belongs to a person or country? All of these questions would be answered in detail with with evidence and proofs.

Islam A Miraculous Name

The religion that was brought by the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) is called “Islam”.  With the title “Islam” this religion is famous in the world since the dawn of the Islamic revolution. Even in the East and West, non-Muslims know this religion with this name. There was never any dispute  on this name between Muslims or non-Muslims. It is the name revealed from God for this religion, and there is no truer name than this name for the message of Islam. and the designation of Islam with this name in terms of its depth, its comprehensiveness, its uniqueness, its distinction, its rarity and its goodness. The name itself represents a miracle for the Messenger of Allah. (may peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him.

What is Mohammedan?

Is “Mohammedan” name acceptable to Muslims for their religion? Some Christian missionaries tried to call Islam Muhammaddan as we find a common phenomenon in the writings of orientalists in India during the colonial times. They tried to attribute Islam to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) instead of Allah. It was with a bad intention to give Islam an impression of, humanity instead of divinity, personality instead of generality,  like their Christian religion. However, Islam is Islam, it never became Mohammedanism.""

The Name Islam in Qur’an

The name of Islam is not limited to the religion that was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) rather it is the name of the religion that was revealed to all the Prophets, but Allah the Almighty has honored this nation by calling the companions of the Prophet Muhammad and his followers, Muslims.  Muslim is a name for the followers of Islam selected by Allah the Almighty. The word Islam and Muslim as name has been mentioned in the Glorious Qur’an. The religion of the previous prophets and Messengers has been always Islam and their followers were Muslims. The Glorious Qur’an says: Indeed, the religion in the sight of Allah is Islam.(Ali ‘Imran 3:19)

In the same Surah, Allah the Almighty says:

And whoever desires other than Islam as religion – never will it be accepted from him, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers. (Ali ‘Imran 3: 85)

In both references, the religion of Muslims has been called Islam. And in other Ayah, followers of Islam have been called “Muslims”. The Glorious Qur’an says:

He has chosen you and has not placed upon you in the religion any difficulty. [It is] the religion of your father, Abraham. Allah named you “Muslims” before [in former scriptures] and in this [revelation] that the Messenger may be a witness over you and you may be witnesses over the people. (Al-Haj 22: 87)

This Ayah clearly says that Allah the Almighty has named you as “Muslims”. Perhaps, you will ask: What is the meaning of Islam and what is the meaning of Muslim in Arabic language?

What is Islam and What is Muslim?

Islam is the name of the religion and who practice Islam are called Muslims, just like those who practice Christianity are called Christians. The literal meaning of Islam is submission. Islam comes from the root Arabic letters  س-ل-م  s-l-m which are the same root letters the word peace (salam) comes from.

‘Islam’ not ‘Izlam’:

In addition, it is pronounced, ‘Islam’ not ‘Izlam.’ The ‘s’ in Islam does not sound like the ‘s’ in ‘is’ but as in ‘school’ and ‘bus.’ Izlam means to make something dark or lightless.

Islam in Arabic Language:

In Arabic, the root word for Islam is ‘salam which means ‘peace’. Generally, ‘salam’ is defined as peace, and its derivatives can mean the following:سَلِمَ (salema)to escape (danger); to be safe, secure; to be sound, unimpaired, or unharmed; to be free (from fault), faultless, or flawless, and سَلَّمَ (Sallama) to hand over; to submit; to save, rescue, to protect, preserve, safeguard, or keep (from harm, injury); اِسْتَلَمَ (Istalama)  تَسَلَّمَ (Tasallama) to accept or approve of; to give consent or agree; and to acknowledge, allow, or concede. If we select any one of the numerous meanings of ‘salam’ and relate it to what is inherent in Islam, we see direct parallels. ‘Islam’ is concurrent with its innermost meaning: peace. Since ‘salam’ means peace, someone can ask if Islam, as a religion, really brings peace. We will consider this question in the following section, Different Categories of Peace. Islam is also defined as peace, treaty, truce, concord, protection, quarter, safety, security, immunity, mercy, and grace. It also means obedience, reverence, worship, homage, and much more.

Islam is Submission to Allah:

In a religious context, Islam technically means to establish the deen exclusively for Allah , i.e., to resign to the will of Allah , the submission of one’s will to the will of Allah , complete submission from the deepest part of one’s heart, and paying homage to Allah . Moreover, Islam is the way of life prescribed by Allah , beginning with the teachings of the first man and prophet, Adam and concluding with the teachings of Allah’s final and most beloved prophet, Muhammad of Arabia, the son of Abdullah. (See: Mohammad Masood Ahmed, Would You Like to Know Something about Islam? Crescent Books Inc.; First edition (December 1, 2011), P.53.)

After looking at the different derivatives of the word, it became clear that the word Islam is totally free from the meaning of personalization, in terms of person, in terms of location, in terms of race, in terms of language, in terms of people, in terms of time, the word Islam is a name of a general and comprehensive nature.

The Names of the Major Religions of the World

The religions of the world are in general named after the names of a particular person, specific nation, a country in which it originated. One of the oldest religions of the world originated in India, Jainism was named after a religious reformer Mahavira Jain, and Buddhism also derives its name from its founder’s name Buddha. in Judaism is attributed to Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Christianity is related Christ or Nasaara نَصَارَى belongs to the town of Nazareth نَاصِرَةَ Palestine, the country of Christ-peace be upon him- Zoroastrianism took its name from its founder’s name, Zoroaster.

It is evident that those name are humane and not divine, because it is the habits of human being to name things after place or person who had specific relation to those things. But only Islam is unique in this regard, it is not exaggeration to say that this could not be invented by a human mind so the name of Islam itself is miracle for the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

Conclusion:

First: The name Islam came from Allah the Almighty, so, it is divine and not human. However, this is not with the Hinduism.

Second: The name of Islam is general and comprehensive, but the name of Hinduism is personal and particular.

Third: The name of Islam is agreed upon and there is no difference around it, unlike Hinduism’s name.

Fourth: The name of Islam beautiful and pleasant compatible with its content, its significance and its good message. On the other hand,  it has been said in the meaning of Hindu هندو that it means black and thief.

Fifth: All Muslims are happy and proud of the name of their religion Islam, and this is not the case in Hinduism.

Sixth: The name Hinduism is based on a foreign language, which is Persian, not Sanskrit or Hindi while Islam is originally from a pure Arabic language.

Seventh: Some Hindus claim that Sanatan सनातन but no one proved it from Hindu authentic and holy scriptures that means it is a human selection and not divine.


tags: arya / aryavarta / combination-of-islam-and-hinduism / common-things-in-islam-and-hinduism / compare-and-contrast-islam-and-hinduism-essay / dharm / difference-between-islam-and-hinduism / difference-between-islam-and-hinduism-pdf / ethical-standards-of-islam-and-hinduism / hinduism / hinduism-and-islam-book-pdf / hinduism-and-islam-god-is-one / hinduism-and-islam-relations / hinduism-and-islam-the-common-thread / hinduism-and-islam-the-common-thread-pdf / hinduism-vs-islam-religion / history-of-islam-and-hinduism / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-alike / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-different / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-similar / how-are-islam-and-hinduism-the-same / how-old-is-islam-and-hinduism / in-what-region-did-islam-and-hinduism-meet / islam / islam-about-hinduism / islam-and-hinduism-by-zakir-naik-pdf / islam-and-hinduism-common / islam-and-hinduism-comparison-chart / islam-and-hinduism-conflict-in-india / islam-and-hinduism-connection / islam-and-hinduism-essay / islam-and-hinduism-in-india / islam-and-hinduism-pdf / islam-and-hinduism-similarities / islam-and-hinduism-venn-diagram / islam-aur-hinduism / islam-aur-hinduism-me-yaksaniyat / islam-buddhism-hinduism-judaism-christianity / islam-buddhism-hinduism-similarities / islam-copied-hinduism / islam-e-hinduismo / islam-from-hinduism / islam-hinduism-christianity / islam-hinduism-comparison / islam-in-hinduism-books / islam-o-hinduismo / islam-on-hinduism / islam-or-hinduism-which-is-older / islam-origin-hinduism / islam-over-hinduism / islam-prophet-hinduism / islam-quran-hinduism / islam-to-hinduism / islam-to-hinduism-conversion / islam-to-hinduism-converts / islam-vs-hinduism-chart / islam-vs-hinduism-history / islam-vs-hinduism-in-hindi / islam-vs-hinduism-vs-buddhism / judaism-and-hinduism-islam / kaikeyi / lajpat / mantra / mix-of-islam-and-hinduism / quran / religion-that-combines-islam-and-hinduism / rig / rigveda / samaj / sanatan / sikhism-mixture-of-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-between-hinduism-and-islam-dr-zakir-naik / similarities-between-hinduism-islam-and-judaism / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism-by-dr-zakir-naik / similarities-between-islam-and-hinduism-pdf / similarities-of-islam-and-hinduism / similarities-with-islam-and-hinduism / sindh / sindhu / veda / vedic / what-do-islam-and-hinduism-have-in-common / what-do-islam-and-hinduism-in-fact-represent / what-does-hinduism-islam-and-judaism-have-in-common / what-does-islam-and-hinduism-have-in-common / %d9%87%d9%86%d8%af%d9%88 / %d9%87%d9%86%d8%af%d9%88%d8%b3%d8%aa%d8%a7%d9%86%d9%8a / %d9%87%d9%86%d8%af%d9%8a-hindoo / %e0%a4%86%e0%a4%b0%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%af%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%b5%e0%a4%b0%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%a4 / %e0%a4%a7%e0%a4%b0%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%ae / %e0%a4%b5%e0%a5%88%e0%a4%a6%e0%a4%bf%e0%a4%95 / %e0%a4%b8%e0%a4%a8%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%a4%e0%a4%a8 / %e0%a4%b9%e0%a4%bf%e0%a4%a8%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%a6%e0%a5%82 /



title: Hereafter in the Glorious Qur’an,
content:

By Dr Zakir Naik

"Belief

Belief in the Hereafter has been proved in the Glorious Qur’an with logical, conclusive, convincing proofs. The Hereafter represents the Absolute Divine Justice according to Islam.

 Belief in the Hereafter is a basic and fundamental pillar of Islam. Without believing in this truth, a person could not be a Muslim. This doctrine has been eluciadated in the Glorious Qur’an and Sunnah in detail. We present here some refrences that clarify this reality:

1. Live Once in this World and then be Resurrected in the Hereafter

 Almighty Allah says in the Glorious Qur’an:

How can you disbelieve in Allah? seeing that you were dead and He gave you life. Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life (on the Day of Resurrection) and then unto Him you will return. (Al-Baqrah 2:28)

Islam states that a human being comes into this world only once, and after he dies, he is again resurrected on the day of judgement. Depending on his deeds, he will either dwell in heaven i.e. Paradise or he will dwell in hell.

2. This Life is a Test for the Hereafter

It is mentioned in the Glorious Qur’an:

Who has created death and life that He may test you which of you is best in deed. And He is the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving. (Al-Mulk 67:2)

This life that we lead in this world is a test for the Hereafter. If we follow the commandments of the Almighty Creator and we pass the test, we shall enter Paradise which is an eternal bliss. If we do not follow the commandments of our Creator and fail the test, we shall be put into hell.

 Full Recompense on the Day of Judgment  

It is mentioned in the Glorious Qur’an

Everyone shall taste death. And only on the Day of Resurrection shall you be paid your wages in full. And whoever is removed away from the Fire and admitted to Paradise, he indeed is successful. The life of this world is only the enjoyment of deception (a deceiving thing). (Aal `Imran 3:185)

4. Paradise

 Al-Jannah i.e. Paradise is a place of perpetual bliss. In Arabic, ‘jannah’ literally means ‘the garden’. The Glorious Qur’an describes Paradise in great detail, such as gardens underneath which rivers run. It contains rivers of milk unchanging in flavor and rivers of purified honey. In Paradise there are fruits of every kind. No fatigue shall be felt in Paradise neither shall there be any idle talk. There shall be no cause of sin, difficulty, anxiety, trouble or hardship. Paradise shall thus have peace and bliss.

Paradise is described in several verses of the Qur’an including Aal `Imran 3:15, Aal `Imran 3:198, An-Nisaa’ 4:57, Al-Ma’idah 5:119, At-Tawbah 9:72, Al-Hijr 15:45-48, Al-Kahf 18:31, Al-Hajj 22:23, Al-Fatir 35:33-35, Yasin 36:55-58, Al-Saffat 37:41-49, Al-Zukhruf 43:68-73, Al-Dukhan 44:51-57, Muhammad 47:15, Al-Tur 52:17-24, Al-Rahman 55:46-77, Al-Waqi`ah 56:11-38.

5. Hell – Jahannam

Hell is a place of torment where evil-doers undergo the most terrible pain and suffering caused by being burnt by hellfire, a fire whose fuel is men and stones. Further, the Qur’an states that as many times as their skins are burnt, the residents of hell shall be given fresh skin so that they feel the pain. Hell is described in several verses of the Qur’an including Al-Baqarah 2:24, An-Nisaa’ 4:56, Ibrahim 14:16-17, Al-Hajj 22:19-22, Fatir 35:36-37.

6. Logical Concept for Differences in Different Individuals 

In Hinduism, the differences between two individuals at birth is explained by stating past Karma i.e. actions of the previous life, as the cause of the differences. There is no scientific or logical proof or evidence of the cycle of rebirths.

How does Islam explain these differences? The Islamic explanation for these differences in different individual is given in Surah Al-Mulk, Almighty Allah says:

Who has created death and life that He may test you which of you is best in deed. And He is the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving. (Al-Mulk 67:2)

This life that we live is the test for the hereafter.

Furthermore, the sufferings of mankind in this world have been explained logically in an article entitled ‘Predestination and Sufferings of Mankind’ published on our website. For more information, please click here.

__________________

Source: Taken from www.islamandhinduism.com  with modifications.


tags: afterlife / and / arya-samaj / banaras / bhag / bhoot / bhut / cory / day-of-judgment / dayanad / death / grave / hereafter / hindu / hindu-scriptures / hinduism / how / idolatry / ithemes / karma / kumbh-maila / lakshmi / lekhram / messengers / miller / pluginbuddy / prophethood / re-birth / renaissance / resurrection / samsara / sarasvati / soul / spirit / statues-hindu-gods / tips / to / transmigration-of-souls / tricks / tutorial / varanasi / wordpress-2 /



title: Predestination and Human Action,
content:

"The

The true concept of fate and destiny in Islam does not defy the freewill of human-being.

No good or bad and no benefit or harm happen to a person except with Allah’s Will and Predestination. Testifying and believing in this is one of the pillars of faith, and without it the faith will not be valid.
There is no contradiction between luck and the belief in Allah’s Decree and Predestination. The person’s luck or portion in something is predestined by Allah. However, believing that a lucky person could achieve what Allah did not prescribe for him, or that only his luck can bring him benefits and repel from him harms, this is something rejected by the Glorious Qur’an, Sunnah, reason and reality.
It is authentically reported that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “O Allah! None can prevent what You have willed to bestow, and none can bestow what You have willed to prevent, and no wealth or majesty can benefit anyone, as from You is all wealth and majesty.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Prayer and Pre-destination

 

It is wrong to say that Allah does not accept our supplication, because accepting the supplication does not necessarily mean that a person should be given exactly what he supplicated for. Rather, one’s supplication may be answered, or an affliction is driven away from him because of his supplication and this will be better for him than what he asked for, or that Allah reserves the reward for him in the Hereafter as stated in a Hadith from the Prophet (peace be upon him).
As far discrimination between people, then this is evident; however, Allah does this out of knowledge and wisdom and not out of ignorance and injustice. There is absolutely perfect wisdom in Him doing so; Allah Almighty says:
Look how We have favored [in provision] some of them over others. But the Hereafter is greater in degrees [of difference] and greater in distinction. (Al-Isra’ 17:21)
Allah Almighty also says:
And have raised some of them above others in degrees [of rank] that they may make use of one another for service. But the mercy of your Lord is better than whatever they accumulate. (Az-Zukhruf 43:32)
In fact, poverty may be for some people better than richness, and richness is better for some others, in the same way health is more beneficial for some. It is reported in a Hadith Qudusi (there is a controversy about its authenticity), “Among My Slaves there are those for whom nothing is better than richness, and if I were to impoverish them, they would be corrupted. And among My Slaves there are those for whom nothing is better than poverty, and if I were to make them rich, they would be corrupted. I manage (the affairs of) My Slaves, I am indeed the All-Aware of their circumstances.”

You should know that real happiness is not by obtaining some money and other temporary worldly pleasures. Rather, the real happiness is in faith and acts of good deeds. Allah says:

Whoever does righteousness, whether male or female, while he is a believer— We will surely cause him to live a good life, and We will surely give them their reward [in the Hereafter] according to the best of what they used to do. (An-Nahl 16:97)

Finally, it should be noted that there are some etiquettes that must be observed when supplicating and there are some matters that prevent the supplication from being accepted.

Submission to the Predestination

Submission to Allah in regard to His Predestination is something required in Islamic faith. If Allah decrees something, there is no one who can overturn His Decree, and if He rules, there is no one who can overturn His Rule. Allah says:

And Allah decides; there is no adjuster of His decision. And He is swift in account. (Ar-R`ad 13:41)

This submission is even more required in regard to matters of the unseen, among which is Predestination, which is the hidden secret. At-Tahawi said in his book entitled Al-`Aqidah At-Tahawiyyah: “The essence of Predestination is the Secret of Allah in His creation which neither a close angel nor a Prophet knows.”

Allah does not do anything except for wisdom; some people might know it and some others might not know it. However, asking about the wisdom in order to reassure one’s heart is acceptable, but asking a question as a way of objection is not permissible, as this is the approach of the devil. Allah says about him:

And [mention] when We said to the angels, ‘Prostrate to Adam,” and they prostrated, except for Iblees. He said, “Should I prostrate to one You created from clay?” (Al-Isra’ 17:61).

Is Predestination an Excuse for sinning?

Scholars stated that it is permissible to argue that Predestination is the reason for the calamities that befall a person but not for the sins that he commits.” Ibn Taymiyyah said: “One may give Predestination as an excuse for calamities but not for sins.”

Everything is predestined is something determined in the texts of the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him). However, it is not acceptable to use Predestination as an excuse for committing sins as we have already clarified in the first point. So, this is our answer to those who say: “What is my fault if this is predestined for me?”

In matters of religion, if one fails to perform an obligation due to laziness, then he is held accountable for that. The congregational prayer is an obligation according to the preponderant view of the scholars and if one fails to perform it without a valid reason, one is sinful.

No sane person would see the fire coming to consume him and he waits for it with the pretext of destiny. Of course, a sane person in this case would not wait but will struggle to run away.

For those who want to rely on Predestination, they are advised to work and do their effort. ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “There is no one amongst you except that his place in Hellfire is written and his place in Paradise is written.” The Companions asked: “Shall we not rely on our book (i.e. Predestination) and not act? He said: “Rather, you should act, as every person is facilitated for what he was created for…..” Ibn Hajar said: “It means that you should be preoccupied with acts of worship, and what you were created for and ordered to do. Then, you should let the matter of the unseen which only Allah knows to its Owner (i.e. Allah), you do not have to do anything about it. This is the summary of the statement of At-Tibi.”

We have not seen anybody leaving his worldly benefits because of relying on Predestination, while some people abandon the means of guidance out of relying on this, and this is contradictory.

Ibn Taymiyyah said in his book entitled Minhaj As-Sunnah: “Using Predestination as an excuse (for committing sins and leaving religious obligations) is unfounded according to the agreement of the Muslim scholars and wise people. The person who uses it as an excuse when committing evils and wrongdoings is someone who contradicts himself and follows his desires. A scholar said, “In matters regarding obedience, they say that they have a choice, but in case of acts of disobedience, they you say that they are forced. They only follow that which corresponds to their desires.”
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Source: Taken from www.islamweb.net with modifications.


tags: arya-samaj / banaras / bhag / dayanad / decree / destiny / fate / ganesh / garhan / hindu / hindu-scriptures / hinduism / idolatry / karma / kumbh-maila / lakshmi / lekhram / luck / messengers / monkey-god / paganism / phone / polytheism / predestination / prophethood / quran / re-birth / sarasvati / statues-hindu-gods / varanasi /



title: Zakah (Obligatory Charity) in Islam,
content:

 

"When

When Zakah was collected and utilized in proper way during the golden days of Islamic history there was not even a single person under what is called now the poverty line.

Zakah is one of the five pillars of Islam. Zakah is mentioned together with Salah (prayer) in eighty two verses of the Glorious Qur’an. Almighty Allah says:

And establish prayer and give zakah. (Al-Baqarah 2:43)

The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “Islam is based on five pillars: “The testimony of Faith, the performance of Salah, the payment of Zakah, the performance of Hajj and the fasting of Ramadan.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Meaning of Zakah

The Arabic word “Zakah” literally means “Purity” and it is known that giving Zakah purifies excess wealth. The Islamic meaning of Zakah is that a certain percentage of excess wealth is taken from the rich and given to the poor. It bridges the gap between the rich and the poor Muslims, and fosters brotherly love among them. The importance of Zakah in Islam is undeniable and should not be underestimated.

Zakah is Obligatory

It is incumbent upon every Muslim who owns nisab (minimum zakatable amount) of wealth to pay its Zakah. The nisab and the percentage of Zakah to be taken from different types of excess wealth are clearly defined in the Glorious Qur’an and Sunnah. For example, when a quantity of 85 grams or more of gold or 595 grams of silver or their equivalent of cash is held in possession for one year, Zakah of 2½ percent becomes due upon it, once the nisab has been reached.

Who receives the Zakah?

The eligible recipients of Zakah are clearly mentioned in the Glorious Qur’an:

Zakah expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect [zakah] and for bringing hearts together [for Islam] and for freeing captives [or slaves] and for those in debt and for the cause of Allah and for the [stranded] traveler – an obligation [imposed] by Allah . And Allah is Knowing and Wise. (At-Tawbah 9:60)

Why pay Zakah?

A man said to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) “Tell me about a deed which admits me to heaven.” He said: “Worship Allah ascribing no partner to Him, perform Salah, pay Zakah and maintain good relation with your kinfolk.” (At-Tabarani)

Warning against withholding Zakah

Allah Almighty says:

And let not those who [greedily] withhold what Allah has given them of His bounty ever think that it is better for them. Rather, it is worse for them. Their necks will be encircled by what they withheld on the Day of Resurrection. And to Allah belongs the heritage of the heavens and the earth. And Allah , with what you do, is [fully] Acquainted. (Aal `Imran 3:180)

Zakah Al-Fitr

This is a special kind of Zakah that is due at the end of the month of Ramadan. Allah, the Exalted, has instituted Zakah Al-Fitr as a means of purification from idle talk and deeds that one may have uttered during this month, as well as a food gift to the needy to save them the embarrassment of asking for it on the Day of `Eid, thus the poor may celebrate the joy of `Eid along with the rich.

Rulings of Zakah Al-Fitr

1. One of a “Sa`” (measure of about 2.5 kgs) of rice, wheat, dates or similar types of food should be given to the poor.

2. Zakah Al-Fitr should be given on `Eid day, and it can be paid a day or two before `Eid.

3. It is permissible to give Zakah Al-Fitr in the form of money, clothes, food or any other articles.

4. If Zakah Al-Fitr was given after the `Eid prayers it would be regarded as common charity not as Zakah Al-Fitr.

5. Zakah Al-Fitr should be given on behalf of every adult, minor, male or female Muslim.

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Source: Taken from www.saudigazette.com  with modifications.


tags: aid / alms-tax / almsgiving / amarnath / arya-samaj / astha / banaras / bhajan / charity / daan / dan / dayanad / financial-support / ganga / generosity / hindi / hindu / hindu-gods / hinduism / idolatry / india / indian / kumbh-mela / lakshmi / lekhram / mandir / sarasvati / shivling / temple / yamuna / yatra / yearly-tax / zakah / zakah-in-islam /



title: Predestination between Islam and Hinduism,
content:

"Let

Let your hand in your work and heart with your Lord.

(islam-hinduism.com)

Belief in predestination was deep-rooted in ancient Indian religions. It is noteworthy that the belief in predestination has two types of extremist followers: one of them views that the human being has no freewill and everything has been pre-ordained, while the other views that there is no predestination and every event happens freshly and recently and every person is free and independent in his actions and doings. Both views were wrong in their perception of predestination. They failed to conceive the idea of predestination in its true nature.

The true belief in predestination which was preached by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is to believe in the eternal, everlasting and inclusive Knowledge of Allah, the Almighty, for everything even before the creation of this world espoused with the belief of freewill of the human being. Every person in Islam is ordered to work and struggle with firm belief in predestination; none should rely on predestination and abandon work and action.

Who Determines the Destiny Karma or Ishvar?

There are a lot of disputes about this subject in Hinduism. Some Hindu sects believe that Karma itself is the determiner of the destiny and does not need to an external agent to execute it in human life while the theist sects of Hinduism believe that the distinction between the fruits of Karma, i.e., good and evil Karma, are due to Vishnu as the Supreme Enforcer of Karma, yet souls alone have the freedom and responsibility for their acts.(1)

According to Madhvacharya, a well-known Indian philosopher, God, although has control, does not interfere with man’s free will; although He is Omnipotent that does not mean that He engages in extraordinary acts. Rather, God enforces a rule of law and, in accordance with the just deserves of Jivas, gives them freedom to follow their own nature.(2)

Madhva agrees that the rewards and punishments bestowed by God are regulated by Him in accordance with the good and sinful deeds committed by them and He does so out of His own will to keep Himself firm in justice and He cannot be controlled in His actions by Karma of human beings nor can He be accused of partiality or cruelty to anyone.(3)

According to Islamic doctrine, Almighty Allah is the One Who wrote the destiny and fate of human beings. He is the Just, the Equitable, the Powerful, He does whatever He Wills, no one can ask Him, no one is to hold Him answerable and no one can judge Him on His Commandments and Decrees, He is the Most Compassionate and the Beneficent Who forgives whom He Wills. The Destiny is the true reflection of His Might and Knowledge.

It is notable that the doctrine of transmigration of the soul, with respect to fateful retribution for acts committed, does not appear in the Rig Veda.

The concept of Karma first appears strongly in the Bhagavad Gita. The topic of Karma is mentioned in the Puranas.(4) It is clear that the concept of Karma is a latter development on Hindu faith which shows the human intervention that denotes the weakness of its authenticity and genuineness of this doctrine.

Opinion of Vedanta

Followers of Vedanta, a leading practicing school of Hinduism in existence today, consider Ishvara, a personal supreme God, as playing that role.(5) According to the Vedanta view, a supreme God is ultimately the enforcer of Karma but humans have the free will to choose.

In some earlier historical traditions of Hinduism, followers of an atheistic division of the Samkhya(*) School do not accept the idea of a supreme God. According to the Samkhya School, a supreme God does not exist.

Theistic View about Destiny in Hinduism

According to the theistic view, the effects of one’s bad Karma may be mitigated. Examples of how bad Karma can be mitigated include following Dharma, or living virtuously; performing good deeds, such as helping others; Bhakti Yoga, or worshiping God in order to receive grace; and conducting pilgrimages to sacred places, such as Chidambaram Temple or Rameswaram to get grace of God.(6)

The story of Ajamila in the Bhagavata Purana also illustrates the same point. Ajamila had committed many evil deeds during his life such as stealing, abandoning his wife and children and marrying a prostitute. But at the moment of death, he involuntarily chanted the name of Narayana and therefore received Moksha or union with God and was saved from bad Karma and Ajamila was forgiven for his great sins and attained salvation, despite his bad Karma.

A person can be free from sorrow through the grace of Isvara. Therefore, the Shvetashvatara Upanishad assumes a Supreme Being whose grace to devotees provides a way of escape from the law of Karma.(7)

Opinion of Theistic schools

Theistic schools believe in cycles of creations where souls gravitate to specific bodies in accordance with Karma, which as an unintelligent object depends on the will of God alone. For example, Kaushitaki Upanishad 1.2 asserts that birth in different forms of existence as a worm, insect, fish, bird, lion, boar, snake or a human, is determined by a person’s deeds and knowledge. [8]

Prarabdha Karma is of three categories, Ichha, Anichha and Parechha (personally desired, without desire and due to others’ desire). For the one who has realized the self, there is no Ichha-Prarabdha but the two others, Anichha and Parechha, remain. Neither agency nor actions does the Lord create for the world, nor union with the fruits of actions. But it is Nature that acts. -Gita, Ch.5, Verse 14.

Conclusion:

Generally, Hindus believe in predestination and there are some statements in Hindu scriptures that address the issue of destiny in Hinduism. However, they are not as clear as the texts of the Glorious Qur’an and Sunnah regarding this subject. The true belief in destination has existed in Hindu culture as was quoted from Krishna and Tulsidas. But the belief has been distorted when they tried to find some justification for the sufferings of mankind in this world especially for the sufferings of innocent babies born with some sorts of defects or disabilities.

However the true faith has been brought by our Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). In fact, this life is a test and this world is not the permanent abode, rather this life is a temporary residence. The whole universe will be destroyed and everyone would be resurrected for accountability in front of Allah, the Almighty, and the sufferings and disabilities would be compensated with full equity and justice. Not only this but Almighty Allah will multiply the reward and human being will wish that he would have been suffered from disabilities in this world seeing the unlimited Mercy of Allah in the Hereafter.

__________________

[*] Samkhya, also Sankhya, Sāṃkhya, or Sāṅkhya is one of the six orthodox or “theist” schools of Hindu philosophy and classical Indian philosophy.

[1] Krishnan Yuvraj, The Doctrine of Karma, Motilal Banarsi Dass Publishers, 1997, pp. 155-156.

[2] Tapasyananda, Swami. Bhakti Schools of Vedantapgs. Chennai, Sri Ramakrishna Math. pp. 178-179.

[3]Ibid.

[4] Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty, Wendy Doniger, Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, 1980, p. 14.

[5] David Frawley, Vedantic Meditation, North Atlantic Books, 2000 p. 4.

[6] Editors of Hinduism Today Magazine, What is Hinduism? p. 254.

[7] Krishnan Yuvraj, The Doctrine of Karma, p. 25.

[8]Ibid.


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