title: Call for the Prayer in Islam and Hinduism,
content:

This article deals with the subject of Adhaan or announcement for gathering to perform worship in the holy place"" and ringing the bell in Hindu religion.

Adhaan and Iqamah in Islam

Adhaan is an announcement for the Muslims with some Arabic sentences to inform them that the prayer time has come.

Iqamah is to inform them that the prayer is ready with the words similar to the Adhaan words with some additional words.

Both Adhaan and Iqamah are amongst the distinguishing characteristics of Muslim nation, that do not exist in any other religion or nation of the world.

Start of Adhaan and Iqamah in Islam

Adhaan and Iqamah were initiated during the first or second year of Hijrah (migration). Before that people used to assemble by themselves in one place to pray in congregation when the prayer times came without calling, i.e. without Azan from the time when the prayer became obligatory in Mecca. After they emigrated to Al Madinah they came to gather and discussed on how to notify people about the prayer time after the expansion of population in Al Madinah.

Ruling on Adhaan and Iqamah.

For the Muslim community, Adhaan is a communal obligation that if performed by some (a sufficient number), the obligation has been fulfilled from the rest. Both Adhaan and Iqamah are obligatory for the daily five prayers during travel and residing.

The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said:

And one of you should pronounce the Adhaan for the prayer when its time is due and the oldest one amongst you should lead the prayer.”(1)

A Meeting in the Prophet’s Era about this Declaration

In second year of Hijrah, Muslims consulted on how to invite people to perform the prayer together in congregation. There were many opinions regarding the method to be adopted for announcing the prayer time. However, nothing was decided until the night came, and Abdullah ibn Zaid, one of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) saw in his dream a man in green dress carrying with him a bell. Abdullah asked him: “Will you sell this bell to me?” The man said, “What will you do with it?” Abdullah said, “Through ringing this bell we will inform the people about the time of the prayer. The man said, “Will I show you what is better than this to inform the people?” Abdullah said: “Yes.” Then the man taught him the words of adhaan. Abdullah said: “in the morning I came to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and I told him what I saw in the dream.” Then Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “It is a true and right dream, go with Bilal and tell him the words of adhaan and he will give the adhaan because his sound is more pleasant than yours.”(2).

Words of Adhaan

Arabic transliteration of the adhaan is as follows:

Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar!
Ashhadu al la ilaha illallah. Ashhadu al la ilaha illallah.
Ashadu anna Muhammadar Rasoolullah. Ashadu anna Muhammadar Rasoolullah.
Hayya ‘ala-s-Salah. Hayya ‘ala-s-Salah.
Hayya ‘ala-l-Falah. Hayya ‘ala-l-Falah.
Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar!
La ilaha illa Allah.

The English translation of the adhaan is:

Allah is Great! Allah is Great! Allah is Great! Allah is Great!
I bear witness that there is no god except Allah.
I bear witness that there is no god except Allah.

I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.
I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.
Come to the prayer. Come to the prayer.
Come to salvation. Come to salvation.
Allah is Great! Allah is Great!
There is no god except Allah.

Additional Words for Fajar Adhaan

For the pre-dawn (fajr) prayer, the following phrase is inserted prior to the final repetition of Allahu Akbar / Allah is Great:

As-salatu Khayrum Minan-nawm. As-salatu Khayrum Minan-nawm.
Prayer is better than sleep. Prayer is better than sleep.

Words of Iqamah

Furthermore, the words of Iqamah are the same of adhaan except that after “Hayya ‘ala-l-falah” “Qad qamati-s-Salah, Qad qamati-s-Salah.” (Prayer is ready, Prayer is ready.) is added.

Ringing the Bell in Hindu Temples

If we want to search in Hinduism for something similar to what is in Islam or the call to prayer, it is the bell hanging"" in the front yards of the Hindu temples and ringing the bell before entering the temple to the deity. However, it is known that Hinduism does not have the idea of ​​collective worship, rather, Hindu worship is based primarily on individual devotion as well as the worship in Hinduism is not obligatory or time-bound but most of its worship is based on freedom and choice. The Hindu writers believe that ringing the bell is meant to alert God and tell him that the devotee has come to worship such as you come to the house of someone you ring the bell first for asking his permission and informing him about your arrival.The following quote explains the reason of bell in Hindu temples:“Bells are important symbols in Hindu worship. Each temple, or mandir, generally hangs at least one metal bell at its entrance for devotees to announce their presence to the Hindu deities. Priests or devotees ring more bells within the temple during worship in order to invoke the gods.”(3)

Conclusion

First:

The adhaan begins with a declaration of the greatness of Allah the Almighty. After that comes the shahadah or the testimony of faith, which includes the declaration of the unity of Allah the Almighty, the denial of shirk (polytheism) and the testimony that Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) is the Messenger of Allah. And after that, comes the call to the prayer and to success. In fact the adhaan in Islam is based on the basics of Islamic faith and thus it is a call for the prayer and reminding that the time of the prayer has come and that Allah is One and worthy of all kinds of worship and devotion and that the Prophet Muhammad is a messenger and prophet appointed by Allah the Almighty.

Second:

It is the greatness of Adhaan in Islam that it is divine and permanent that continues twenty-four hours on the globe because when Adhaan finishes in an eastern area of the globe it begins in the nearest western area as the time of the prayer depends on the earth’s pivotal rotation in the day and night and the time of prayer begins first in the east then gradually in the west so there is no time but there is adhaan being given in every moment.

Third:

At first there was a proposal to adopt the bell to announce the advent of prayer time, but the next morning Allah the Almighty showed in a dream the words of Adhaan and was verified by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) which is the prevailing adhaan in the world.

Fourth:

The words of the Adhaan and the method of its beginning are clear proof that Islam is a divine religion revealed by Allah the Almighty, and it is not inspired by a human imagination.

Fifth:

We note here that it is unreasonable and illogical for us to say that ringing the bell in Hindu temples before entering to the god is a notification to the god that the visitor has come, because God is supposed to be aware of everything in the earth and heaven, and how does the God need to be alerted and informed about the visitor?

_______________________

(1) Reported by Al Bukhari.

(2) Reported by Abu Dawood and ad-Darimi.

(3) http://bit.ly/2nkPRnb (Last accessed on 2/10/2019).


tags: adhaan / allah / allahu / bilal / fajar / god / hindu / hinduism / iqamah / islam / messenger / muhammad / prayer-mandir / prophet / temples /



title: Marriage by Abduction (Rakshasa Vivaha) in Hinduism,
content:

By Editorial Staff
""

Rakshasa Vivah was described by Hindu scriptures as forceful seizure of a maiden from her home.

It is generally known that ancient Indian law recognized eight types of marriage; that is as follows:

1. Brahma Vivaha (Arranged M

arriage) : giving the girl to a man with dowry.

2. Daiva Vivaha: giving the girl to the priest himself in lieu of his fees.

3. Arsha Vivaha: giving the girl to a man after accepting a bride-price.

4. Prajapatya Vivaha: giving the girl to a man without demanding a bride-price.

5. Gandharva Vivaha: Love Marriage.

6. Asura Vivaha: marriage to a purchased girl.

7. Rakshava Vivaha: marriage to a kidnapped girl.

8. Paishacha Vivaha: marriage to a girl after seducing. (1)

I would like to concentrate here on the Rakshasa Vivaha and Paisacha Vivaha. Paishacha Vivah was the most horrible form of all types of marriages. In this the bride is not only kidnapped, but she is first molested or stolen amidst her tribe. Usually when her relatives are asleep, or in a state of intoxication during a tribal festival, this act is carried out in stealth. This form of marriage was most prevalent among the Hindu Sutras. The difference between the above mentioned forms of marriage as far as legal consequences are concerned exceedingly small. From the legal point of view, all forms of marriage could in principle be divided into orthodox forms of marriage (Brahma Vivaha, the Daiva Vivaha, the Arsa Vivaha, the Prjapatya Vivaha) and other forms of marriage (Asura Vivaha, Gandharva Vivahaa, Rakshasa Vivahaa and Paisacha Vivaha).

A marriage contracted according to one of the orthodox forms of marriage entails different legal consequences from a marriage contracted in other forms. In ancient India, the form of marriage (विवाह) signified in what way the marriage was contracted.(2)

Rakshasa Vivaha and Paisacha Vivaha are based on forcible abduction of a girl that has not consented to this marriage. According to Hindu scriptures, the forcible abduction is prohibited. But, if this forcible abduction is prohibited and considered a crime, how is it possible to admit a marriage based on forcible abduction was allowed? Of course it could not be allowed.

However, this form of marriage is recognized as unlawful probably for members of the Brahman caste only, but permissible for kings and Kshatriya caste.

Dr. Ludwik Sternbach presents many texts from the most important Hindu scriptures on the marriage by abduction in ancient India. He says in this regard: “I have based my conclusions upon the most important Dharmsastras, Arthasastras, Kamasutras, Grhyasutras and the Mahabharata and other Hindu scriptures.”(3)

Moreover, we find some Hindu scriptures praise abducting a girl for marriage, I am quoting here a passage by Johann Jakob Meyer who says in this regard:

“Not only Krishna, the conscienceless fellow, who rose to the lofty dignity of highest god from being an obscure new-comer, is set before us as a bold woman snatcher and not only the Arjuna so wrongly praised to the skies by later revisers of the Kuru saga, but also the truly noble Bhishma. Among his heroic deeds we often find the abduction of maidens, and when he is dead, his mother Ganga sings his praises for this too. Twice the Mahabharata tells the tale of how he carried off the daughter of the king of Kashi for his half-brother. In the first and very vivid passage we read: “When now Bhishma, wisest of the wise, saw that his brother had reached manhood’s years, he set his thoughts on finding him a wife. Then Bhishma heard how the three daughters of the king of Kashi (like the fairies of heaven they were) were all holding their choice of a husband.”(4) Until he lifted the maidens onto his chariot.

The abovementioned quote denotes clearly that abducting the girls of the king was regarded as a heroic deed and Bhishma has been regarded as the wisest of the wise.

On the contrary, Islam puts a harsh punishment for those who make mischief in the land and damage the security of the people.

The Glorious Qur’an says in this regard:

Indeed, the penalty for those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and strive upon earth [to cause] corruption is none but that they be killed or crucified or that their hands and feet be cut off from opposite sides or that they be exiled from the land. That is for them a disgrace in this world; and for them in the Hereafter is a great punishment. (Al-Ma’idah 5:33)

However, the punishment is more serious if it is related to the woman. The one who accuses a chaste woman with false accusation is cursed by Allah, the Almighty, and angels in this world and the Hereafter. The Glorious Qur’an says:

Indeed, those who [falsely] accuse chaste, unaware and believing women are cursed in this world and the Hereafter; and they will have a great punishment. (An-Nur 24:23)

This punishment is prescribed by Allah, the Almighty, on just the accusation and slandering of a chaste woman, then how severe punishment would be for those who abduct a woman or terrorize her? I think if the punishment prescribed by Allah (glory be to Him) for adultery was implemented in modern societies accurately, there would be no rape at all that occurs daily in India and other countries of the world. It is really strange that Hindu scriptures praise the act of abducting a girl for marriage. Such nature is totally far from the spirit of a divine scripture.

It is really unreasonable that the marriage based on abducting or stealing a girl was allowed for kings and Kashtriya caste. It is surprising from the ancient Hindu law that allowed such unnatural marriage. How can we seek a reasonable cause for this type of injustice? Is it possible that a heavenly book may include such law? Allowing such marriage is an insult to the dignity of a woman by all standards. Such laws and principles can not be constituted by a wise man, not to mention Allah the Wise, the All-Knowing.

On the other hand, Islamic law never permits any marriage without the consent of the both parties; the bride and groom.

However, this type of marriage does not exist in India these days, perhaps it was before the advent of Islam, because the Islamic culture has left a significant impact on Indian culture and it reformed many Hindu religious ideologies and stereotypes, as well as, Islam has enlightened the religious thinking in India. For example, Islam was the active element in abolishing the tradition of Sati (a custom of burning the widow to death on her husband’s pyre). In the 16th century, steps to prohibit Sati were taken by the Mughal rulers Humayun and his son Akbar.(5) Thus Islam was a divine blessing even for Hindu women.

____________________

(1) http://gauravprakashspace.wordpress.com/2011/08/24/types-of-hindu-marriagevivaha/. Last accessed on 26-10-2013

(2) Ludwik Sternbach, Forms of Marriage in Ancient India And Their Development, Bharatiya Vidya, India, 1951, pp.63, 64.

(3) Ludwik Sternbach, Forms of Marriage in Ancient India And Their Development, Bharatiya Vidya, India, 1951, pp.63.

(4) Sexual Life in Ancient India, New York, Barnes & Noble, Inc. 1953, pp. 68, 69.

(5) http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/575795/suttee. Last accessed on 22-10-2013.


tags: arsa-vivaha / asura-vivaha / brahma-vivaha / daiva-vivaha / divorce / divorcee / dress-code / equality-of-woman / equity / gandharva-vivahaa / hijab / hindu-widows / islamic-law / marriage-by-abduction-rakshasa-vivaha-in-hinduism / modesty / niyog / oppression / paisacha-vivaha / parvati / polygamy / prjapatya-vivaha / rakshasa-vivahaa / sati / second-marriage / shariah / true-religion-of-islam / veil / woman-rights-in-islam / woman-status-in-islam /



title: Some Philosophical Questions on Hinduism,
content:

"The

The Hindu God Ganesh with elephant’s trunk.

Non-Muslims have raised some intellectual and philosophical questions against Islam even in the era of the Prophet (peace be upon him); i.e. during the period of the revelation of the Glorious Qur’an. And Allah (Glory to Him) in many cases answered those questions in the divine revelation directly.

The Glorious Qur’an says in this connection:

And he presents for Us an example and forgets his [own] creation. He says, “Who will give life to bones while they are disintegrated? Say, “He will give them life who produced them the first time; and He is, of all creation, Knowing.” [It is] He who made for you from the green tree, fire, and then from it you ignite. (Yasin 36:78-80)

We will refer to the circumstances, context and event of the revelation of the above-mentioned blessed verses in the following lines.

 

Questions against the faith of resurrection during the period of revelation

It was narrated that Ubay ibn Khalaf came to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) carrying in his hand obsolete and decayed bones to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) then he smashed them by his hand scattering them in the air and then said in mocking style: “O Muhammad! Do you think that God will bring these decayed bones back to life? The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) answered: “Yes, God will cause your death then He will bring you back to life and He will admit you the hellfire.(1)

In addition, there are many examples of this kind of conversation and discussion in the Glorious Qur’an and the blessed Sunnah. Moreover, the Muslim scholars throughout the ages followed the same method and undertook the duty of refuting the questions and critique by the opponents of Islam; and explained the secrets and wisdom behind the Islamic doctrine, (Shari`ah) the law and the system of life in Islam. You can read in this subject the books of Ibn Qutaibah Ad-Dinawari (d. 889 A.D.), Ta’wil Mushkil Al-Qur’an and Ta’wil Mukhtalif Al-Hadith.

Additionally, there were hot debates and strong conversations between Muslims and Hindus in the Indian sub-continent throughout the history after the entrance of Muslims to India. And Muslim arguers and debaters raised some serious philosophical critiques and logical questions against Hinduism challenging Hindu spiritual leaders to give convincing answers to those questions. I am going to present here some of them in a brief manner stating that the challenge is still open for Hindu spiritual guides to answer the questions objectively.

 

Some challenging and logical questions on Hinduism

Who can answer the following questions? The answers are warmly welcomed.

1- According to Hindu religion, there are 84 thousand kinds of creation and the best creation on the earth is the human being. Then the question is: Why are the cow, elephant and dog worshipped by human beings, and the worshipped must be superior and better than the worshipper? It is a sort of philosophical contradiction.

2- There are 33 million Devi and Devta (gods) in Hinduism, who over millions of years managed to make only a few million people Hindu most of them are Hindu by their birth not by their choice. However, the Hindus were so weak in their faith that they accepted Islam and became Muslim by just simple efforts of Muslim preachers. When the Hindus were invited to Islam and became familiar with the Islamic message, they entered into the religion of Allah in multitudes. If the Hindu beliefs were stronger, better and more suitable than Islam, they would have never accepted Islam.

Prince Dara Shikoh (1615-1659 A.D.) says  in his book Safinat ul Aouliya about Khajah Moinuddin Chishti (1141-1236): “Large numbers of non-Muslims were blessed with Islam by his auspicious invitation, even those who did not embrace Islam used to send to him treasures of gold coins of gold.”(2)

Why did the Hindu god create people in low caste and high caste? 

3- Hindus believe that Brahma has created the people but the question is: why has he divided them into high and low, pure and impure, touchable and untouchable castes? Why did he make four castes: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras? Is this not a racial discrimination and a clear injustice by the God?

Why does Shiva sit on a lion’s skin?

"The

The Hindu God Shiva sitting on the lion’s skin.

4- Shiva sits on the skin of lion as his images and paintings show. The question is: how did Shiva get this skin; is it not a sort of offence against the lion?  Is it not killing of an innocent animal?

5- Hindus believe that Rama is their Lord. According to Hindu scriptures, Rama waged a war against Lanka in order to free his wife Sita. Undoubtedly, this was his personal battle and for personal cause then why has he pushed the whole society into the war?

What was the contribution of this war to the wellbeing of the common people?  As Ravana was the king of Lanka since a long time and his nature was evil and Rama knew all about his vice acts why did Ram not fight him before the abduction of his wife to teach him a lesson in advance? What was the benefit of this war for the society and country?

 

Where was the wife of Lakshmana during the exile period?

4- When Rama went to his exile for 14 years and took with him his wife Sita and his brother Lakshmana who was already married and had wife, the question is: where was Urmil the wife of Laxman during the exile period?

5- If Hinduism is many thousand years old and a divine true religion, then why has it not spread outside India? Before our modern days, there was no presence of Hinduism anywhere in the world except the Indian sub-continent whilst Islam became more popular and attracted more followers than Hinduism? What is the secret behind this?

Why did Dasaratha, the father of Rama, have four wives?

6- According to the Hindu religion, if second marriage for a man is prohibited, especially when the first wife is alive; the question is:  Why had Dasaratha the father of Rama four wives? What is the justification for his marriages according to the Hindu philosophy?

7- Hindu scriptures state that once Shiva chopped the neck of his son Ganesh then he cut the head of an elephant and installed it on the neck of his son Ganesh instead of his own head.

The question is: Why did Shiva order to bring another animal’s head to put on Ganesh’s body! Why so? If he had so many powers, he could easily put back his own head? Who gave him the right to harm an innocent animal? Additionally, how can an elephant’s head match with the neck of a human baby?

 

Why did Rama kill an innocent deer?

"The

The Hindu God Rama on his journey to hunt the golden deer.

8- If the meat is forbidden in the Hindu religion, then why did Rama go to haunt the golden deer?

If you say that Rama killed the golden deer for its “kasturi” (deer’s navel or the substance with a persistent odor, obtained from a gland of the male musk deer situated in its back or rectal area.) for his wife Sita then the question is: is killing an animal for kasturi permissible then why is it not permissible for its meat?

9- If Rama is God, then why did he not know that Ravana’s belly button includes elixir of life until he was informed by others? Moreover, if he would not have known the elixir of life in Ravana’s belly he never would have been able to defeat him. If he could not know such simple thing then he cannot be a god.

10- According to Hinduism, Krishna is a god, but the Hindu scriptures state that Krishna watched secretly some nude women who took bath in the river. How can such a person be a god who is worshipped by Hindus?

11- What is the wisdom behind the worship of Shiva’s penis instead of his other body parts?

 

Why was Khujraho regarded a temple despite the sexual images?

"Asking

Asking questions is the best way for learning and teaching. Dialogue is the best way to know one another’s culture and opinion.

12- Khujraho monuments have provocative and shameful sexual images, then why was the building regarded as the temple? Do the provocative and sexual images deserve worship and devotion but the question is why?

These are some simple questions that may come into the mind of any fair researcher in Hinduism. In fact, they are objective and fair questions and the Hindu brothers are requested to give reasonable answers in an objective framework. This is not a challenge, but it is a discussion that intends to seek the opinions of other religions and philosophies for a better understanding.

_____________________

(1) See: Abul-Barakat `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Mahmud An-Nasafi, Madarik At-Tanzil Wa Haqa’iq At-Taweel, Dar Al-Kalim At-Tayyib, Beirut, 1998, vol.3, 113.

(2) See: Dara Shikoh, Safinat ul Aouliya (in Persian language), Madrasah Agra Press 1853, p. 159.


tags: allah / beef / bhagwan / caste / featured / ganges / gharvapsi / god / hindu / hindu-scriptures / hinduism / idolatory / islam / lakshmi / lord / makkah / messengers / monkey-god / paganism / parmatma / parmeshwar / polytheism / prophethood / quran / river / snake / statues-hindu-gods / vishnu / vyshyas / yamuna-arya-samaj /



title: A Simple Guide for Hindu Brothers during Religious Festivals,
content:

By Editorial Staff

""

Every religion including Hinduism and Islam tries to put an end to sedition in its all colors and in its all forms.

Hinduism is full of festivals and celebration over the year, and some of them got global recognition. In many occasions, the religious festivals turn into bloody clashes and riots.
To avoid such sorrowful and sad incidents, we have summarized a guide. If those instructions are propagated amongst the people, it surely will be helpful to save the life of the innocent Indians and to save the integrity and social peace and tranquility of our beloved mother India.
1- In Holi, please, avoid throwing colors on strangers.
2-Avoid throwing colors on the people of other faiths; Jains, Buddhists, Jews, Christians, Muslims or Sikhs.
3-Avoid playing songs loudly, specially, during the night time.
4-Try to avoid passing the procession near the worship places of other religions.
5- Avoid slogans and words that may hurt religious feelings of another group or sect of our country.
6-Some religious practices defy common sense and general opinion, try to avoid such practices and some religious practices spoil the natural resources, like immersing the idols in the tanks, ponds, lakes, rivers and seas, please, try to avoid those practices.
7-Whenever you try to hurt a Dalit or a Muslim or a member of any other community, think that the person is someone’s son or daughter, brother or sister. Think that he might be a breadwinner of his family. Think that he might be a hope of his family. Suppose if you were in his place what will be your feelings?
8- Now, in the era of advanced technologies, your bad actions would be recorded or even might be live and you might be accountable for your doings, so try to keep yourself away from violent actions.
9- The videos of communal violence in India rotate on the internet instantly that spoils the fame and name our beautiful country.
10-India always remained a paradise for the people of different religions and faiths and India had been mother of many world-famous religions like Jainism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, etc. so diversity is its identity.
11- When the saddening incidents of the violence are posted on the internet, the tourism of India is hurt and the economy of our country is damaged.
13- It is really, appreciated to seize the opportunities of religious festivals to help the poor, the needy, the orphans, the homeless, and to educate our illiterate and uneducated brothers and sisters. Thus, you can change your beloved country India into a bird of gold again.
14- Suppose, if there is a garden that has different types of flowers, and different types of fragrances, would you like to spoil all of them except one flower. Similarly, India is a garden that has diversity in religion and culture, they are like different flowers and their fragrances, and in fact, and they add more beauty into the beauty of India. Muslims and Hindus are two eyes of India. So, try to save your country for next generations.
15-And you! O Muslim brother! If one of your Hindu brothers threw the color on you, then you should smile to him and do not quarrel with him. Do not you see that your merciful and kind messenger; the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) pardoned his bitterest enemies; rather, he honored them and that we should follow his footsteps especially in such dangerous situation?

(हिंदी अनुवाद)
धार्मिक महोत्सव के दौरान हिंदू भाईयों के लिए मार्गदर्शन

हिंदू धर्म वर्ष भर त्योहारों से भरपूर है, और उनमें से कुछ को वैश्विक मान्यता मिल चुकी है।
परंतु कई अवसरों में, धार्मिक उत्सव खूनी झड़पों और दंगों में बदल जाते हैं। और खूशी की जगह दुख लेलेता है । ऐसी दुखी और दुखद घटनाओं से बचने के लिए, हमने कुछ निर्देशों का सारांश दिया है यदि उन मार्गदर्शन को लोगों के बीच प्रचार किया जाता है तो निश्चित रूप से निर्दोष भारतीयों के जीवन को बचाने और हमारी प्यारी मां भारत की अखंडता और सामाजिक शांति और चैन को बचाने के लिए सहायक होगा।
१- होली में, कृपया, अजनबियों पर रंगों को फेंकने से बचें।
२- अन्य विश्वास और धर्म के लोगों पर रंगों को फेंकने से बचें; जैसे; जैन, बौद्ध, यहूदी, ईसाई, मुस्लिम या सिख।
३-रात के समय ज़ोर से गाने बजाते न रहें, विशेष रूप से।
४- अन्य धर्मों की पूजा स्थलों के पास जुलूस पारित करने से बचने का प्रयास करें। यदि आप दूसरों को दुख देते हैं तो इससे आपका भगवान कभी ख़ुश नहीं होगा।
५- नारे और दुश्मनी वाले शब्दों से बचें जो कि हमारे देश के दूसरे समूह या संप्रदाय की धार्मिक भावनाओं को ठेस पहुँचा सकते हैं।
६-कुछ धार्मिक प्रथा सामान्य ज्ञान और सामान्य राय से मेल नहीं खाते हैं, ऐसे व्यवहारों से बचने की कोशिश करें। और कुछ धार्मिक प्रथा प्राकृतिक संसाधनों को खराब करती हैं, जैसे टैंकों, तालाबों, झीलों, नदियों और समुद्रों में मूर्तियों को डुबोते हैं, कृपया उन प्रथाओं से बचने की कोशिश करें ।
७- जब भी आप किसी दलित या मुस्लिम या किसी अन्य समुदाय के सदस्य को मारपीट की कोशिश करते हैं, तो यह ज़रूर सोचें कि वह व्यक्ति किसी का बेटा या बेटी, भाई या बहन है। यह सोच लें कि वह अपने परिवार की रोजीरोटी का ज़रीया हो। या यह भी हो सकता है कि वह अपने परिवार की आशा हो। मान लीजिए कि अगर आप उसकी जगह पर होते तो आपकी भावना क्या होती?
८-अब, हम एडवांस्ड टेक्नोलॉजी के युग में हैं, याद रहे कि आपके बुरे कार्यों को रेकोर्ड किया जा सकता है या फिर लाइव हो सकता है और आप अपने कार्यों के लिए तुरन्त जवाबदेह हो सकते हैं, इसलिए हिंसक कृत्यों से दूर रहने का प्रयास करें।
९- भारत में सांप्रदायिक हिंसा के वीडियो तुरन्त इंटरनेट पर घूम जाते हैं और यह हमारे खूबसूरत देश का नाम बदनाम कर देता है।
१०-भारत हमेशा विभिन्न धर्मों और मतों के लोगों के लिए एक स्वर्ग बना रहा है। और भारत कई धर्मों; जैन धर्म, बौद्ध धर्म, हिंदू धर्म, सिख धर्म इत्यादि की जन्मभूमि है। वास्तव में इस देश की विविधता इसकी पहचान है।
११- जब जब हिंसा की दुखी घटनाओं को इंटरनेट पर पोस्ट किया जाता है, तो भारत का टूरिज़्म विभाग को नुकसान पहुँचता है। और हमारे देश की अर्थव्यवस्था क्षतिग्रस्त हो जाती है।
१३- वास्तव में, धार्मिक त्योहारों के अवसरों को उत्कृष्ट लक्ष्यों में उपयोग करना बुध्धिमानी है जैसे: गरीब, जरूरतमंद, अनाथ, बेघर और हमारे अशिक्षित और अनपढ़ भाइयों और बहनों को शिक्षित करने की कोशिश करना। इस प्रकार, आप अपने प्रिय देश भारत को फिर से सोने की एक पक्षी में बदल सकते हैं।
१४ – मान लीजिए, अगर एक बगीचा है जिसमें विभिन्न प्रकार के फूल और विभिन्न प्रकार के सुगंध हैं, तो क्या आप एक फूल को छोड़कर सभी को मसल कर खराब करना चाहेंगे? इसी तरह, भारत एक ऐसा स्वर्ग है जहां धर्म और संस्कृति में विविधता है। वे अलग-अलग फूलों और सुगंध की तरह हैं, और वास्तव में, वे भारत की सुंदरता में चार चाँद लगाते हैं। मुस्लिम और हिंदु भारत की दो आँखें हैं इसलिए, अगली पीढ़ियों के लिए अपने देश को बचा कर रखने की कोशिश करें।
१५- और आप! हे मुस्लिम भाई! अगर आपके एक हिन्दू भाई ने आप पर रंग फेंक दिया, तो आपको गुस्सा से नहीं बल्कि मुस्कुराहट से पेश आना चाहिए और उसके साथ झगड़ा मत कीजिये। क्या आप अपने दयालु और कृपालु दूत पैगंबर मुहम्मद (शांति हो उन पर) को नहीं देखते; जिन्होंने अपने कट्टर दुश्मनों को भी माफ़ कर दिया, बल्कि, उन्होंने तो दुश्मनों को भी सम्मानित किया। याद रखें, मुसलमान भाई! इस तरह के खतरनाक परिस्थितियों में विशेष रूप से अनुसरण करना चाहिए?


tags: amarnath / arya-samaj / astha / banaras / brahmin / darshan / dayanad / dewali / dharm-shastar / eid-al-fitr-and-eid-al-adhha / ganga / hindi / hindu-gods / hinduism / holi / india / indian / islamic-shariah / itihasa / kirtan / kumbh-mela / lakshmi / laws-of-manu / lekhram / maha-shivratri-and-the-islamic-festivals-a-comparison / mandir / manusm%e1%b9%9bti / namaz / pilgrimage / prayers / puja / puranas / sanatan-shastar / sangam / sarasvati / shivling / shivratri / temple / tirath / upanishads / vedas / worship / yamuna / yatra /



title: Maha Shivratri and the Islamic Festivals: A Comparison,
content:

(islam-hinduism.com)

"Shivratri

Shivratri means the night of Shiva.

What is Shivratri?

The word Shivratri is composed of two separate words Shiv and Ratri. The word Ratri in Hindi means the night and Shiva is a Hindu god who is believed as the destroyer of the world, thus Shivratri means the night of Shiva. It is amongst the most important Hindu festivals that occurs on the fourteenth of the lunar month Phalguna; dark half 27th February. This, according to followers of Shiva, is the most sacred of all their festivals. The ceremony is said to have been enjoined by Shiva himself, who declared to his wife Uma that the fourteenth of Phalguna if observed in honor of him, would be a destruction of the consequences of all sin.

According to the Hindu scriptures Parvati, a Hindu goddess, was married to Bhole Nath on the night of Mahashivratri.(1)

 

 Disputes about the Exact Date of Shivratri

 

There is some difference with respect to the day on which this festival is observed; according to some authorities it is held on the fourteenth of the darkness of Magha, according to others on the fourteenth of that of Phalguna. Another difference which is less easily adjusted, is that of date; some considering the festival as properly beginning of the thirteenth instead of the fourteenth; which appears to be the case in the South India. There are some complicated disputes regarding the beginning of hours of this festival.(2)

Shivaratri is celebrated on the 6th night of the dark Phalgun (Feb. or March) every year. On this day, devotees observe fast and keep vigil all night. Mahashivaratri marks the night when Shiva performed the ‘Tandava’. It is also believed that on this day Shiva was married to Parvati. On this day, Shiva devotees offer fruits, flowers and bel leaves on Shiva Linga.

Hindus believe that an element of Bholenath resides in every Shivling 24 hours during  Maha Shivaratri. Some Hindus believe that the night of Maha Shivaratri is of great importance, because,  the moon sits at the head of Shiva. Also, the moon in the night of the end of Phalgun is almost completely diminishes, vengeful powers increase and affect the mind of the person and govern it and lure to the sin. Through the worship of Shiva, the effects of the vengeful powers are defeated.(3)

 

The Worship of Linga during Shivratri

 

The three essential observances are; fasting during the whole Tithi, or lunar day, and holding a vigil and worshiping the Linga during the night and various kinds of rituals are presented to the Linga, also the Linga is bathed with honey with prayers.

Brahmans are entertained and presents are gifted to them by the master of the house and the family holds a feast for them. Those modes of adoration which are at all times addressed to the different forms of Shiva especially to the Linga.

At the Shivratri worship, the Linga may be crowned with a chaplet of Ketaki flowers, but only on this occasion.

Some Hindu priests have instructed the devotees in following words: “On the occasion of Shivaratri, one should give up the bed before the sunrise and should take a bathe in the early morning, and should go to a Shiva temple and worship the Linga.(3)

Although the reputed sanctity of the Shivratri, is evidently of secretarial and comparatively modern, as well as merely local institution, and consequently offers no points of analogy to the practices of antiquity.

 

What are the Preferred Rituals of Shivratri?

 

It is noted on the occasion of Shivratri that a large amount of expensive food substances are wasted under the name of worship and ritual offerings to Shiv Linga in all parts of the Indian subcontinent.

Dtura, berry fruit, leaves of Bel tree, milk, honey, ghee, curd and  water are offered to Shiv Ling.  Lamps and incense sticks are lit and the word “Om Namaha Shivaya” are recited.(4)

 

Waste of Thousands of Liters Milk in Shivratri

 

As well as, thousands of liters of pure milk, are squandered  on this occasion, a newspaper says in this regard:

“On the occasion of Shivaratri, thousands of liters of milk as a ritual offering are wasted and thrown into the drains every year.”(5)

This is about the Hindu festival Shivratri, now, we would like to highlight some Islamic festivals to show the difference between the nature of festivals in Islam and Hinduism.

 

The Islamic Festivals

 

When we compare we find that the nature of Shivratri is quite different from the nature of the Islamic festivals in most respects: the belief, practice and methods of celebration. In Islam, there are two basic festivals; `Eid Al-Fitr and `Eid Al-Adha.  `Eid Al-Fitr is associated with the fasting of the sacred month of Ramadhan, and `Eid al-Adha is associated with the sacrificial animal and pilgrimage. `Eid al-Fitr falls on the first day of the month of Shawwal, the tenth month of the Islamic calendar after the end of the blessed month of Ramadhan wherein all eligible Muslims observe the worship of fasting.

`Eid al-Adha falls each year on the tenth day of the month of Dhul–Hijjah, the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar. The two Festivals are agreed upon between all Muslims without any dispute.

There is another weekly gathering when Muslims assembled for the Friday prayer.  The Jumu`ah prayer is followed by a sermon that includes some religious instructions.

 

The Characteristics of the Islamic Festivals

 

The Islamic festivals are associated with some remarkable events and auspicious and pure acts of worship. It has been reported that when the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) arrived in Al-Medinah during two days in which they were celebrating. The Prophet asked: “What are these two days?” They answered: “We would celebrate these two days during the time of ignorance.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Verily, Allah has replaced these two days with two better days: the day of sacrifices (`Eid Al-Adha) and the day of breaking fast (`Eid Al-Fitr).” (Abu Dawud).

The Muslims were ordered to celebrate their festivals, associating them with worship, prayer, charity, visiting nears and dears and many other good acts that achieve the spiritual, religious and social sublime goals.

The expression of pleasure during the festivals is a meritorious and recommended action which has been permitted by Allah (Glory be to Him) for His slaves as it is a sort of revival and refreshment for the body and soul. Celebration or festivity under Islamic moral values and in the line with the Islamic rulings is not prohibited.

Islamic festivals are characterized with prayers and chanting glorifying words to Allah. All Muslims, men, women and children share this happiness. The prayer is conducted in the congregation, whether in mosques or open fields.

Glorification and exaltation to Allah with devotion is a special kind of worship during the both festivals. Allah (Glory be to Him) says regarding Jumu`ah prayer:

O you who have believed, when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu’ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of Allah and leave the trade. That is better for you, if you only knew. (Al-Jumu`ah 62:10)

And Allah (Glory be to Him) says regarding the festival of Al-Fitr:

For you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and perhaps you will be grateful. (Al-Baqarah 1:185)

Moreover, Allah (Glory be to Him) says regarding the festival of Al-Addha:

So pray to your Lord and sacrifice [to Him alone]. (Al-Kawthar 108:2)

We note in the above mentioned three verses of the Glorious Qur’an that Allah the Almighty has made the festivals and the days of pleasure combined with the remembrance of Allah and glorifying Him. Islam does not permit any kind of behavioral deviance, unethical acts or any activity that may harm others. Islamic festivals are based on the purity in all aspects; faith, action, celebration and showing joy and pleasure. But the celebration must be within the limits of the legal and Islamic provisions. No dance, no shamelessness, no wine,  no fires, no crackers and no waste of useful things is allowed in Islam, neither in festivals nor in any other occasions.

Do you not agree with me that the purity of Islamic festivals, their elevation, their loftiness and their sanctity indicate that these festivals are not an invention of the human mind? If they would have been invented by the human thought there would have been many serious errors in the rules, methods and forms of the expression of the joy and pleasure during the festivals. However, everyone can note in the Hindu celebrations that the expression of joy and happiness in Hinduism is based on some wrong beliefs and wrong ways. Hindus believe in the divinity of a stone carved in the form of a penis. Does your mind accept the belief that God appears in the shape of a penis? This word is regarded as some kind of abuse in the Indian society, if you do not accept this word for yourself, how do you accept it for your god? This is not but a serious religious and intellectual mistake. Why Hindu women pour milk on the linga ? Is it not an apparent obscenity, and an insult to the Hindu women?

Furthermore, thousands of liters of milk and Ghee are spelt on the Linga by Hindu women in every temple of the country every year that flow into the sewers while hundreds of thousands of babies and infants of poor and needy Indian nation suffer from the lack of milk? I think that a simple mind can conclude with full conviction that such festivals which include such immorality and evil cannot be a divinely prescribed worship. Perhaps, the devil misled some Hindu monks and ascetics during the ancient times and tempted them to invent these evils.

On the contrary, a common man who does not follow the customs of parents and grandparents and ancestors can conclude that Islamic festivals with their ​​purity and cleanliness, are not man-made, they are not but the pure revelation from Allah to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

I would like to advise Hindu brothers and sisters to follow their own minds. They should listen to the voice of the conscience and follow what is better for the mind, conscience and society. They can find their logic and wisdom in Islam, which is a complete way and a comprehensive system of life, including festivals, weddings and celebrations.

_____________________

(1)  John Murdoch, Hindu and Muhammadan Festivals, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi 1991, p.28

(2)  http://www.amarujala.com/news/spirituality/religion-festivals/importance-of-shivratri-night/(Last accessed on 5-3-2014).

(3)  http://religion.bhaskar.com/article/JYO-JN-jyts-know-the-measure-for-shivratri-26-feb-2014-4532342-NOR.html. (Last accessed on 4-3-2014).

(4)  https://sites.google.com/site/festivalsoffamily/home/maha-sivaratri. (Last accessed on 5-3-2014).

(http://navbharattimes.indiatimes.com/lucknow/other-news/the-shivaratri-waste-milk-will-not-flow-up-to-bholebaba/articleshow/31001240.cms (Last accessed on 7-3-2014).


tags: amarnath / arya-samaj / astha / banaras / brahmin / darshan / dayanad / dewali / dharm-shastar / eid-al-fitr-and-eid-al-adhha / ganga / hindi / hindu-gods / hinduism / holi / india / indian / islamic-shariah / itihasa / kirtan / kumbh-mela / lakshmi / laws-of-manu / lekhram / maha-shivratri-and-the-islamic-festivals-a-comparison / mandir / manusm%e1%b9%9bti / namaz / pilgrimage / prayers / puja / puranas / sanatan-shastar / sangam / sarasvati / shivling / shivratri / temple / tirath / upanishads / vedas / worship / yamuna / yatra /



title: Purification after Urination and Defecation in Hinduism and Islam,
content:

This article makes a comparison between Islam and Hinduism on purification after urination and defecation.

""

Purity and cleanliness are the most important religious, moral, health and social matters, especially in Islam and Hinduism.

According to the Holy Quran and saying of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), Islam pays great attention to the purity and cleanliness, especially from urine, as well as Hinduism has instructions on cleansing from the human urine.

Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said: “Beware of (smearing yourselves with) urine, because it is the main cause of punishment in the grave”. (1)

Do and don’t of purification in Islam

It is permissible to cleanse with water alone, or with anything clean that can remove the dirt and impurity such as paper napkin, cloth, etc. But with water is better, because it is more suitable for cleaning and purification. It is recommended in Islam to cleanse first with anything dry and then to purify with water. Allah the Almighty praised those companions who were extra careful of their cleanliness and used water urinating or defecating. Allah the Almighty says:

There in are those who desire to be well purified and Allah loves the pure. (At-Tawbah9:108)

It is recommended to recite bismillah before entering the toilet seeking refuge with Allah from devil.

Whenever the Prophet (peace be upon him) went to the lavatory, he used to say: “Allahumma Inni a`udhu bika minalkhubthi Wal khaba’ith. “O Allah, I seek refuge with You from devils – males and females.”(2)

It is obligatory to hide his/her private parts from people during defecating or urinating and it is recommended to put the left foot first when entering the toilet, and the right foot when leaving.

It is disliked in Islam to cleanse with right hand. And should not to be undressed until is close to the ground or commode. It is not recommended to face the sun or the moon to show the back to them when urinating or defecating. It is not allowed to urinate towards the current of the wind, so that the urine droplets will not return to the body or dress and contaminate them. It is also disliked to speak during answering the call of nature, except for what is necessary like guiding a blind who is going to fall and will be harmed if was not guided. It is also prohibited to urinate or defecate in burrows or holes. It is also not to enter with something containing blessed names of Allah the Almighty or Verses of the Glorious Qur’an, except in necessity. It is also disliked to pass urine standing except for the compelling situations and to make the face towards the Ka’abah or the direction of Makkah, or to urinate or defecate on the way or street, or in a place where shade is taken, or around a water fountain, or under a fruit tree. It is also disliked in Islam to stay in the toilet more than needed.

We did not mention the Hadeeth for these provisions and etiquettes lest the article is lengthy, but these provisions are based on Hadith or sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

Bathroom Etiquette in Hinduism  

Hinduism also has some etiquette for urinating and defecating. We will mention some of them here and then we will compare the provisions of Hinduism and Islam to know the differences between them. The Shastr has mentioned some of these provisions. The Mantras in Manu Shastr from 45 to 52 details these rulings:

  1. Let him not void urine on a road, on ashes, or in a cow-pen (enclosure for cow).
  2. Nor on ploughed land, in water, on an altar of bricks, on a mountain, on the ruins of a temple, nor ever on an ant-hill.
  3. Nor in holes inhabited by living creatures, nor while he walks or stands, nor on reaching the bank of a river, nor on the top of a mountain.
  4. Let him never void feces or urine, facing the wind, or a fire, or looking towards a Brahmana, the sun, water or cows.
  5. He may ease himself, having covered (the ground) with sticks, clods (a piece of earth or clay), leaves, grass, and the like, restraining his speech, (keeping himself) pure, wrapping up his body, and covering his head.
  6. Let him void feces and urine, in the daytime turning to the north, at night turning towards the south, during the two twilights in the same (position) as by day.
  7. In the shade or in darkness a Brahmana may, both by day and night, do it, assuming any position he pleases; likewise when his life is in danger.
  8. The intellect of (a man) who voids urine against a fire, the sun, the moon, in water, against a Brahmana, a cow, or the wind, perishes. (3)

And a Brahmin must wrap the holy thread around the ear when defecating and urinating and to sit making the face towards the north in the daytime and making the face towards the south at night he should move the private part three times.(4)

Commonalities between Hinduism and Islam in Etiquettes of Urine and Feces

After we mentioned the etiquettes of purification from urine and feces, you will note with me that both have some common rulings in this regard:

It is prohibited in both religions to urinate on a road in water in holes, standing, on the bank of a river that will go to the water, towards the wind or sun, talking, uncovering his body or private parts to the people. While covering the head is recommended. It is not allowed to pass urine against a fire, the sun, the moon, in water, the wind and talking is prohibited in both religions during that.

It is really good thing that both religions have wonderful common ground in this subject.

Urination: Should it be Standing or Sitting?

It is Sunnah to urinate sitting down. It was narrated that ‘Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: “Whoever tells you that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) urinated standing up, do not believe him, for he would not urinate except while squatting.”(5)

But this ruling has an exception and this exception has been established by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) himself. If the place was dirty or not suitable for sitting then it is permissible.

It has narrated on the authority of Hudhaifah (may Allah be pleased with him): Once the Prophet (peace be upon him) went to the dumps of some people and passed urine while standing. He then asked for water and so I brought it to him and he performed ablution. (6)

Health Benefits for Sitting Urination

Moreover, It is medically recommended to pass urine sitting.

“Sitting down is a better option for men with prostate conditions or men who just can’t stand up for a long time,” said Dr. Mills. “A lot of guys sit to pee if they can’t fully evacuate their bladder. When you sit down, you can use your abdominal muscles more, and you get your last few squirts out and feel like you’ve emptied better.” (7)

Why Do Hindus Urinate Standing?

It is noticeable that in general Hindus; men and women do not use water for purification after urination, as well as the practice of Hindus is to urinate in standing that leads to polluting the clothes and body with urine drops, as well as the tradition of Hindus is not to be circumcised, and this is also a cause of pollution among Hindus. On the other hand, Muslims use water to wash the private organ after urinating; also, it is a habit of Muslims to urinate while sitting and it helps a lot in cleanliness as well as Muslim children get circumcised in their childhood that is also a big source of cleanliness due to cutting off the extra skin around the penis.

However, some Hindu brothers support the practice of sitting urinating as the standing posture for urinating is a bad one, and they say, because it “causes a flow of accumulated Raja-Tama predominant energy towards the feet. As the negative energy gets concentrated there, the distressing vibrations emitting from Patal (Hell region) can very quickly enter the body through the feet.” It also “activates the flow of black energy associated with the ground, charging the entire body of the individual with Raja-Tama components.” This is from the Sanstha’s Holy Text ‘Daily Conduct and the science underlying its Acts’. (8)

It is about human urine, that is regarded as impure and dirt by Hindu culture, but Hinduism is based on exalting the cow urine and cow dung.

Hindus and Cow Urine

Many people may have been unable to imagine that there are humans on the earth who might drink cow urine and eat cow dung if the videos had not been circulated showing footage of some Hindus drinking fresh cow urine immediately after they collected it in a cup when cow urinated. The practice is based on the strong religious belief amongst the Hindus that cows are sacred and its urine is pure and curing. Some Muslims in India believe due to ignorance that baby’s urine is pure and there is nothing to do if a baby urinates in the lap on the dress and they can perform the prayer with that; without washing it because baby is like an angel. However, this thought is wrong and totally incorrect according to Islam.

Conclusion:

First: However, we find some Hindu brothers who support the practice of urinating in standing like Muslims, but the question is if the changing in idea and practice is because of Islamic influence on Hindu mind or because of their own scripture’s instruction.

Second: According to Islam, it is forbidden to face the east and west when urinating and defecating in India, not for the east and west, but because the Holy Kaabah is in the west for the People of India and this is out of veneration and respect for Kaabah.

Third: It is forbidden in Hinduism also to face a Brahman or a cow while urinating because Brahman occupies high place in the list of caste system as well as cow is sacred and center of the Hindu gods.

Fourth: Hindu scripture allows non-Brahmins only to void feces and urine, in the daytime turning to the north, at night turning towards the south, during the two twilights in the same (position) as by day. However, for Brahmins it is allowed to relieve in the shade or in darkness. A Brahmana may, both by day and at night, do it, assuming any position he pleases; likewise when his life is in danger.

In fact, we cannot establish any logical wisdom or reason behind this discrimination between Brahmin and non Brahmin.

Fifth: According to the Hadith mentioned above it is prohibited to relieve in holes in general however, Hindu scripture has a condition and that is “inhabited by living creatures.” The reason for this ruling in Islam is not to harm and not be harmed.

Sixth: Islam has prescribed a prayer to be recited before entering the toilet and after leaving it as the dirty places are occupied by evil souls and devils. But in Hinduism we do not find such prayers.

____________________________

References:

(1) Reported by Ad-Darqutni.

(2) Reported by Al Bukhari.

(3) Laws of Manu, CHAPTER IV.

(4) Al Hunood, by Mirza Muhammad Kazim, vol.3rd, p. 398 , Gulzar Ahmadi Press, Moradabad, India.

(5) Sunan an-Nasa’I, the Book of Purification.

(6) Sahih al-Bukhari 224 Book 4, Hadith 91Vol. 1, Book 4, Hadith 224

(7) http://bit.ly/2Hucqwx(last accessed on 8/28/2019)

(8) http://bit.ly/2Uemz5Q (last accessed on 8/29/2019).


tags:



title: Sanatan Dharma and One God,
content:

""

True divine religion always is one and based on the faith of One God.

In this video, you will watch a Chaturvedi Muslim scholar who recites Sanskrit Mantras with their translation in an impressive style.

The speaker has mentioned in his speech that all human beings come from one single origin: Adam and Hawwa. Thus, he infers that every Indian rather, every human being is brother and sister to each other.

In this regard, he has emphasized that if the human being was created by One God, then how can He make different faiths for the people? The real divine faith is one over the ages and the real religion always remained one but some selfish leaders diverted the people from the true divine message and made them follow their own manmade faiths and religions to achieve their own worldly gains.

Divine Message is always the Same

In addition, the speaker has highlighted that the first man and the earliest Prophet on this earth Adam (peace be upon him) had received from his Lord a system of faith that was renovated and restored by every Prophet and Messenger on this earth whenever there was any sort of alteration or change.

It is noteworthy that the same message was received by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), the Last and Final Messenger.

In this context, the speaker has referred to a quote from the Hindu Holy Scripture Geeta that says: “Whenever there was any distortion or twist in the true divine message, a Prophet or Messenger was appointed by Allah the Almighty for the guidance of the people.”

What is Brahma Sutra in Hinduism?

Moreover, the speaker has explained the meaning of Sanatan (the eternal) and the Brahmasutra comparing them with Surah Al-Fatihah, the first Surah in the Glorious Qur’an. The Brahmasutra of the Veda; the base and foundation of Hindu Dharma says: “God is one; there is no other God, nothing, nothing, nothing at all. When this meaning of Brahmasutra is compared with the most famous Kalimah of Islam or the blessed words recited frequently by most of the Muslims every day; la ilaha illa Allah (there is no god but Allah), it would be realized clearly that both traditional phrases give almost the similar message, or one of them is literal translation of other.

Islam is Like Rain or Rays of the Sun

The speaker also clarified the meaning of Arabic word Islam saying that Islam means submission; submission of one’s will to the orders and commands of Allah the Almighty.

Islam is a divine message that is for all and everyone. Therefore, a son of a Prophet can become an infidel and a son of an infidel can become a Muslim.

Islam is not specific to any person, caste, tribe, country, nation, place or time. Islam is like the rain or rays of the sun or the light of the moon that are common for everyone and universal.

Islam is a way of life and method of better living that satisfies; the soul and the matter, the heart and the mind, the physical and the spiritual, the divinely and the worldly. Islam is not a movement, party, organization or group, rather, Islam is a comprehensive way of life for every human being on this globe.

According to Vedas Worshipping the Creation is Darkness

In this context, the speaker has referred to some Mantras of Yajur Veda with an authentic translation by a staunch Hindu writer that says:

“They are enveloped in darkness, in other words, are steeped in ignorance and sunk in the greatest depths of misery who worship the uncreated, eternal prakrti—the material cause of the world—in place of the All-pervading God. But those who worship visible things born of the prakrti, such as the earth, trees, bodies (human and the like) in place of God are enveloped in still greater darkness, in other words, they are extremely foolish, fall into an awful hell of pain and sorrow, and suffer terribly for a long time.” (Yajur Veda 40:9)

Is Idol-Worship Permissible in Hinduism?

Additionally, the speaker refutes the tradition of idol-worship in Hindu society on the pretext that they worship only One God and those idols are only helpful to concentrate their minds and hearts on worship.

The speaker refutes this justification for idol-worship through a logical and convincing example; suppose, if a person was standing and focusing his eyes on a dog and when he was asked; what are you doing? Then he answered: I am concentrating on my father’s face. In this case, the person would be argued that you cannot imagine your father’s image through the dog because there is no relation between them.

The same argument applies to justifying the idol-worship as there is no relation between the idol and the God. According to Hinduism and Islam, God is formless who does not have any shape or form.

God does not beget nor is He begotten according to Upanishad

It is also noteworthy that some Hindu scriptures prove that Ishvar is Eternal, who does not beget nor is He begotten and none is equal to Him and the similar meaning was mentioned in the Glorious Qur’an in Surat Al-Ikhlas, verse 112.

The speaker has referred to numerous quotes from ancient Hindu scriptures to prove monotheism in the earliest Vedic period concluding that the idol-worship is a later development in Vedic faith.


tags: allah / amarnath / angels / avtar / beef / bharat / conversion / dharma / ganesh / gao-mata / gharvapsi / ghaznavi / god / hindi / hindu / hinduism / indian-subcontinent / islam / kali / krishna / kumbh / mahabharat / muhammad / prophet / purana / quran / rama / ramayana / sanatan / shivling / sita / varanasi / vedas /



title: Animal Sacrifice in Islam and Hinduism,
content:

""

There are many proofs from Hindu culture that denote the existence of animal sacrifice for gods and goddesses.

In this article, we will study and present the issue of slaughtering, sacrificing, and eating meat in Hinduism and Islam. It is known that some meat is halal in Islam, such as camels, cows, sheep, chickens, fish and some are forbidden such as elephant, pig, predators with fangs and birds that hunt with claws. Slaughtering the sacrifice is obligatory on every Muslim, able, residing not on a journey, every year during the days of Eid al-Adha.

Because of slaughtering cows or eating beef, many Muslims have lost their lives at the hands of Hindu terrorists during these years. And the issue of cow slaughter has been a major religious, social and political issue in India for centuries.

Hinduism is one the most ancient religion in the world. According Islamic tradition; the first human being; Hazrat Adam (peace be upon him) descended in India. (1)

Human Dietary Habit in Ancient Times

It is certain that humans used to live on different types of primitive foods. It is logical to assume that their main food was not fruit, flower and plants only. The use of non-vegetarian food was also amongst the favorite foods of human being like some animal’s habit. Animal meat is something normal amongst human being, even, man ate human flesh in some cases.

Rājendralāla Mitra (Raja) says in his book: On Human Sacrifices in Ancient India:

“It cannot be denied, that men under certain circumstances of society, do take to human flesh as an article of food.”(2)

It is an ancient tradition to thank God for food before meals. Sacrifice is a part of that old system to offer some part of food on the name of food; if was offered, it will represent a form of thank to Him and will destroy food’s side effects.

Therefore, preferring some food to some and prohibition of meat is surely a later development in Indian culture. This is a logical conclusion in this matter.

The Native Indians

The native Indians, Dravidians, Santhal, adivasis have always been carnivores even today, while Brahmin and Aryans are invaders of India who drive away the original Indian people to the mountains and jungles and they occupied their land or chained them in caste system.(3)

Meat Eating in India

Even, Hindu religion has never been supporter of non-violence or killing the animal for the food, but was influenced by Jainism and Buddhism in later periods, and incorporated some of their conduct, thought and philosophy. The main reason for this is to accept Mahatma Buddha as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu and in particular the approval and promotion of his teachings of the Vaishnava sect of Hinduism.

Is Animal Sacrifice Permissible in Hinduism?

The question is: Is animal sacrifice permissible in Hinduism? In some Hindu communities, sacrifice is used to please the gods and deities. The practice of sacrificing goat, rooster or buffalo under the sacrificial practice is common amongst Hindus. The question arises whether sacrificial practice is a part of Hinduism?
However, some Hindu writers claim that Hinduism in its essence does not have any concept of animal killing for food.

बलि Bali or Sacrifice in Sanskrit Dictionary

The Sanskrit dictionary mentions under the word Bali some animals that denote the existence of animal sacrifice amongst at least some Indians.

The dictionary mentions the following:

बलि tribute, offering, gift, oblation (esp. an offering of portions of food, such as grain, rice, etc. to certain gods, semi-divine beings, household divinities, spirits, men, birds, other animals and all creatures including even lifeless objects; it is made before the daily meal by arranging portions of food in a circle or by throwing them into the air outside the house or into the sacred fire; it is also called bhuta-yajna and was one of the 5 mahd-yajnas or great devotional acts; a victim (often a goat or buffalo) offered to Durga, the presentation of an offering to a deity (consisting of rice, milk, fruits etc. when presented to Vishnu, or of living victims when offered to Siva or Durga. (4)
We note in the above-mentioned reference animals, birds, buffalo and goat beside some grains, that means that the animal sacrifices existed in Indian and Hindu society.

Furthermore, there is another word in Sanskrit that is Yajna यज्ञ which has the meaning of animal sacrifice. The Dictionary mentions:

“Yajna: worship, devotion, prayer, praise; act of worship or devotion, offering, oblation, sacrifice (the former meanings prevailing in Veda, the latter in post-Vedic literature. (5)

Moreover, there is an altar or special place in front of some Hindu temples in India to slaughter sacrificial animal such as sheep and goat. And when they slaughter they separate the head from the body completely, however, Muslims do not separate the head from the body when they slaughter the animal and wisdom is that the animal should not be given pain more than need.

Moreover some Hindu scriptures mention the age of the animal when it should be sacrificed:

“An animal is fit for being sacrificed when it is more than ten days old.” It is not fit until it has teeth.” It is not fit until the milk teeth are shed.”(6)

Conclusion:

With all these evidence, some Hindu brothers claim that the slaughter of sacrifice is incompatible with mercy and animal should not be harmed, and surprisingly, they claim mercy with the animal while they do not have any mercy on weak human being when they catch a helpless person and attack him collectively and kill him beating and torturing and spread fear and panic in the hearts of people. Even, they know that mighty tyrants like Pharaoh and Haman and their ilk are under the dust now and being tortured by the angels for their tyrannies and the same will happen with every tyrant.

_____________________
(1)See: Subhatul Murjan Fi Aasar e hundustan, by Sayyid Ghulam Ali Azad Al-Belgirami, p.5.
(2) (On Human Sacrifices in Ancient India By Rājendralāla Mitra (Raja), p.87)
(3)Hindustani Tamaddun: Steam Press, Hyderabad, Deccan 1943, p.10.
)هندوستاني تمدن ص 10 ط:استيم بريس ، حيدرآباد ، الدكن ، الهند 1943م(.

(4) A Sanskrit -English Dictionary, by Sir Monier Monier-Williams, Oxford University Press, Amen house, London. 1956, 1960, P. 723.
(5) A Sanskrit -English Dictionary, by Sir Monier Monier-Williams, Oxford University Press, Amen house, London. 1956, 1960, P. 839. (See under the word यज्ञ).
(6) On Human Sacrifices in Ancient India By Rājendralāla Mitra (Raja) P.92.


tags: adam / adha / adivasis / ancient / bali / beef / cows / dravidians / goddesses / gods / hinduism / india / islam / muslims / sacrifice / santhal / slaughtering / yajna / %e0%a4%ac%e0%a4%b2%e0%a4%bf / %e0%a4%af%e0%a4%9c%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%9e /



title: A Hindu Inspector Praises Islam,
content:

"The

The teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) are like the fragrance of the flowers that spread by itself.

A Hindu police officer begins his speech with this Hadith:

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Support your brother whether he is an oppressor or is being oppressed.” He was asked: “O Messenger of Allah! we help the one being oppressed but how do we help an oppressor?” The Prophet said: “By seizing his hand.” In another narration, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “By restraining him or preventing him from committing injustice, for that is how you support him.”

How can one help an oppressor?

The previous Hadith is an attractive instruction by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be on him) that shows how we can help an oppressor or tyrant as everyone knows how to help an oppressed.

This Hadith attracted this Hindu police officer who acknowledges it saying: “The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is mercy for the whole universe. He is mercy for all. He rains his mercy over the whole world. He should not be limited to a single tendency or religion. He could not be restricted to a single culture, language and country. In addition, the Glorious Qur’an is a guide for all so its light should not be bounded to a single direction rather it must spread towards all directions.”

The Prophet Muhammad a practical example

The police officer, wearing the uniform, adds:

“I would like to inform you that Ishvar, Prabhu or Allah (God) granted us the treasure of knowledge and the Prophets and Messengers are like the torchbearers who spread that knowledge amongst the people. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) practiced what he preached. In Marathi there is a proverb that says: “He implements what he says”. Even now, his message is as important and compatible as it was in 623 A.D.”

The Hindu police officer referred to the journey of migration from Makkah to Madinah by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his followers escaping from the tyrannies of the infidels in Makkah.

Furthermore, he referred to the principle of equality that was practiced and preached by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

Exemplary  justice by the Prophet Muhammad

The officer also referred to the narration that shows the impartiality of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in implementing the rulings strictly with every one; near and dear when the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) announced clearly: “By Allah, if Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, stole something, Muhammad would cut off her hand”.

It is noteworthy that the punishment in Islam for stealing is cutting off the hand of the thief if the thief was, adult, sane and there was no common food shortage or job crisis and the stolen thing was valuable.

The teachings of the Prophet are like fragrance

The officer stressed that the message of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is the message for entire humanity that was sent to the mankind and the message must be conveyed to all communities. Moreover, the message must be viewed through the nature of message, irrespective of language, culture, country and religion. The truth is truth wherever it might be. The flower spreads its fragrance wherever it might be.

The officer mentions that the first human-being; his holiness; Adam (peace be upon him) landed on the earth of India first and built a place of worship there.

He concludes his words with a quote from Rig-Veda that says: “let the truth come from the all sides”.

Our website http://www.islam-hinduism.com/en/ appreciates such unbiased and courageous words about Islam and the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).


tags: ahmad / avtar / bhagvan / bharat / buddhism / christian / christianity / comparative / conversion / deedat / geeta / hindi / hindu / hinduism / incarnation / india / islam / jainism / mahabharat / muslim / rama / ramayn / rebirth / religion / reversion / sarasvati / sheikh / shiv / truth / upanishad / vedas /



title: Do Muslims Worship the Kabah?,
content:

By Editorial Satff
"Do

All Muslims understand that the Ka`bah is just a symbol and does not harm or benefit anyone.

We hear many people here and there who ask: Do Muslims Worship the Ka`bah? If not then why Muslims go to it? In, fact, this type of misunderstanding is raised by those who misapprehend the true status of Ka`bah in Islam. They think that Ka`bah is like their deities or idols, but it is not a deity or an idol in Islam.

We would like to declare that Muslims always adhere to the commands of Allah (Glory be to Him) and the instructions of His Messenger (peace be upon him).

Facing the direction of Qiblah (prayer direction) is a condition of the validity of prayer in common situations. There is no controversy on this issue. Allah the Almighty says:

So turn your face toward al-Masjid al-Haram. And wherever you [believers] are, turn your faces toward it [in prayer]. (Al-Baqarah 2:144)

However, there are some exceptions in this ruling according to some urgent conditions, where a person is unable to face the direction of Ka`bah, such as the prayer of fear (during a war) and non-obligatory prayer for a person traveling on a riding animal or any other means of transportation. In these cases and similar situations, facing the direction of Ka`bah is an un-obligatory issue and the prayer is valid if it was performed to any direction.

As Allah the Almighty says:

And to Allah belongs the east and the west. So wherever you [might] turn, there is the Face of Allah. Indeed, Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing. (Al-Baqarah 2:115)

Islam urges Muslims to face the Ka`bah during the prayer to symbolize the concept of unity among all Muslims all over the globe. If the issue is left open to everybody, everyone will be facing a different direction and this might cause disunity.

All Muslims understand that the Ka`bah is just a symbol and does not harm or benefit anyone.

Muslims also go around the Ka`bah in Hajj to symbolize the divine unity of Allah the Almighty. At certain times during the lifetime of the Prophet (peace be upon him) Bilal (may Allah be pleased with) stood on the Ka`bah and gave the Adhan. If there is any kind of worship, they would not have done that.

Islam came to preach the worship of Allah the One and Alone. The message of Islam has invited people to abandon the worship of idols and deities in any form. Allah (Glory be to Him) says:

But they have taken besides Him gods which create nothing, while they are created, and possess not for themselves any harm or benefit and possess not [power to cause] death or life or resurrection. (Al-Furqan 25:3)

All Messengers and Prophets were ordered by Allah the Almighty to worship Allah the One, Who has no form, shape or idol.

The Glorious Qur’an says in this regard:

And We sent not before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that, “There is no deity except Me, so worship Me.” (Al-Anbiya’ 21:25)

Muslims Worship only the Lord of Ka`bah not the Ka`bah

It is strange to label Islam with idolatry, while Islam has been characterized across its history with the principle of monotheism in all aspects of human action, including: faith, worship, dealing and actions. Since its advent until today, monotheism has been its identity just as the concept of rebirth is the distinctive feature of Hinduism.

Every Muslim in the world, whether educated or un-educated, intellectual or non-intellectual announces clearly that Allah is the One Who must be worshipped Alone and not the Ka`bah or anything else. Indeed, Muslims turn their faces to the direction of Ka`bah during the prayer because Allah (Glory be to Him) has ordered them to do so. That is why they implement the Command of Allah the Almighty in order to obey Him and worship Him. The implementation of His Orders and Commands has been regarded in Islam as the most meritorious kind of worship. Worship in Islam is not directed to Ka`bah itself rather it is directed to the Lord of Ka`abh, the Lord of the whole universe. In addition, Muslim jurists have concluded that the Muslims who live in distant places or in other countries and could not see Ka`bah in front of them during their prayer, such people do not need to face the physical building of Ka`bah directly. For such Muslims, it is enough to face the direction of Ka`bah only and their prayer is valid. This is unlike the idols of Hindus who set idols of their gods in every home and shop. Also they carry them wherever they go or travel. Hindu temples are also filled with idols and statues of their gods, while the mosques of Muslims in any country or place of the world are completely free from all kinds of images and statues.

Bayt Al-Maqdis: The First Qiblah of Muslims

It is noteworthy here that Muslims in the beginning of Islam used to turn their faces to the direction of Bayt Al-Maqdis in Jerusalem during their prayers, because the Prophet Muhammad

(peace be upon him) and his followers were ordered by Allah the Almighty to turn their faces to the Bayt Al-Maqdis. Thereafter, Allah (Glory be to Him) ordered them to turn their faces to the direction of Ka`bah in Makkah, since then the Muslims began turning their faces to Ka`bah implementing the Command of Allah the Almighty. Thus it has become clear that Muslims are merely bound by the orders of their Lord the Almighty. When He (Glory be to Him) ordered them to face the direction of Bayt Al-Maqdis they obeyed His Command sincerely and when they were ordered again to face the direction of Ka`bah they implemented it immediately. That is why Allah is worshipped and He is obeyed in all cases, not the Ka`bah as was misunderstood by some people.


tags: alms-giving / amarnath / arya-samaj / banaras / dayanad / declaration-of-faith / do-muslims-worship-the-kabah / fasting / featured / ganga / hindu-gods / idolatry / jagannath / kabah / kumbh-maila / lakshmi / lekhram / makkah / pilgrimage / sarasvati / saudi-arabia / shivling / tirath / varanasi / worship / yamuna / yatra /



title: Sexuality in Islam and Hinduism (4/4),
content:

""

Hinduism is basically based on permission and prohibition regarding the sexuality.

In the two parts of this article we have presented some issues related to sex and sexuality in Islam. In the third part of this article we discussed some topics of sex and sexuality in the light of Hindu philosophy. In this last part and concluding part, we will present some issues that could not be covered in the previous parts.

Sex has become like flood or tornado in this age; rules of permission and prohibition regarding sexuality are in danger now. No matter how much human abandons the moral values, but his conscience is always alive and urges humans to commit the ethical principles. These are the main reasons and motivations that led me to write these articles.

Is adultery a sin in Hinduism?

The answer is yes, Manusmriti forbids sexual intercourse with a virgin girl (without marriage). It includes provisions for the atonement of this sin. Carnal intercourse with sisters by the same mother, with (unmarried) maidens, with females of the lowest castes, with the wives of a friend, or of a son, they declare to be equal to the violation of a Guru’s bed.[ Laws of Manu, Chapter 11:59]

In addition, when the gods lusted for Gautama’s wife and raped her, their intelligences were destroyed by lust. Then they were terrified and went to the sage Durvasas [an incarnation of Siva], who said, ‘I will remove all your defilements with the Satarudriya Mantra [an ancient Saiva prayer].’ Then he gave them ashes which they smeared upon their bodies, and their sins were shaken off.”(1) 

Also, whoever committed sexual intercourse with sisters by the same mother, with the wives of a friend, or of a son, with unmarried maidens, and with females of the lowest castes, shall perform the penance, prescribed for the violation of a Guru’s bed.[ Laws of Manu, Chapter 11:171]

If a person of lower varna (caste) has sexual intercourse with a woman of higher varna, with or without her consent, he is to be killed. (Manusmriti, VIII: 366)

Adultery by a Female is prohibited in Hinduism:

 Some Hindus criticize the principle of punishment for adultery in Islam. However, Hindu scriptures are clear in prescribing the punishment for adultery whether by a male or female. In this regard Manu says:

 If a wife commits adultery she would be punished and one of the punishments is: “Let him (the husband) leave the unfaithful wife to dwell robbed of her dignity, dirty, living only on a mouthful, despised (hated), and sleeping on the ground; but if she has got with child by the stranger, then it is laid down she shall be cast off.” (2)

 Another text says: “Where she is unfaithful to her husband, there is, for the woman, shaving the head, sleeping on the bare ground, bad food, and bad clothing (or: bad housing, kuvasas), and for work the removal of garbage and rubbish.” (3)

Regarding the punishment, one of the oldest and most revered Vedic rishis, Vasishtha ordains:

8. But if (a wife) has actually committed adultery, she shall wear during a year a garment smeared with clarified butter, and sleep on a mat of Kuśa grass, or in a pit filled with cow dung. After (the expiration of) the year, (the husband) shall offer eight hundred burnt-oblations, (reciting) the Sāvitrī (and the Mantra called) Śiras, while she is immersed in water. It is declared in the Veda that she becomes pure (thereby).

9. But if she commits adultery with a Guru, she is forbidden (to assist her husband) in (the fulfilment of) his sacred duties.

10. But (these) four (wives) must be abandoned, (viz.) one who yields herself to (her husband’s) pupil or to (his) Guru, and especially one who attempts the life of her lord, or who commits adultery with a man of a degraded caste. (4)

According to Baudh, the adulteress must do kricchra. And so on. But if the faithless wife has atoned for her sin, then she must be treated just as before her misdeed. A stirring picture of the woes of adultery is given in Kuttanim. Throwing out from the family, the censure by people, and danger to Life, the journey to hell, and other pains are given as the lot of the wife forgetful of virtue. The cutting off the nose, riding an ass, and so on is well enough known out of Indian literature. (5)

The adulteress has no right of life according to Hinduism as we have already been told, in losing her virtue she has also lost her womanhood and rights as a woman: if anyone kills her, he is practically left unpunished.

“When a married woman commits adultery, her hair shall be shaved, she shall have to lie on a low couch, receive bad food and bad clothing? And the removal of the sweepings shall be assigned to her as her occupation.”(6)

“The unchaste wife should be deprived of authority, should be unadorned, allowed food barely sufficient to sustain her body, rebuked, and let sleep on low bed, and thus allowed to dwell.”(7)

These are some punishments prescribed for a woman if she commits adultery, but the condition is that if she is married.

Punishment in Hinduism for helping others on Adultery

In Hinduism, we find a punishment for helping others to commit adultery. The punishment is the hellfire.   

“Of course, he, too, is a wicked man who helps others to adultery: “He that seduces or touches another’s wife, or gets her for another, goes to hell.”(5)

According to Islamic tradition, a person who guides and helps another to do good is like the doer in reward. And according to the reasoning and analogy, the one who helps another to bad deed is like the wrong doer. 

Brahman-Murderer and Adulterer is Equal

According to Hinduism an adulterer is even to be punished with death. For unnatural desires, of whatever kind, the law writings and the Puranas lay down various purifications and penances (and expulsion from the caste). Anyone practicing such lewdness or other forbidden sexual intercourse is the same as a Brahman-murderer.

Is Homosexuality Forbidden in Hinduism?

Perhaps, many Hindu brothers do not know that homosexuality is forbidden in Hinduism and according to logical analogy the lesbianism must be forbidden in Hinduism as well.

So, too, homosexuality is a dreadful sin: ” The blind ones, evil-livers, very foolish ones, however, who find their delight in intercourse with a base womb (especially of an animal, but also of a woman of low rank) (viyonau), and with men, are born again as men incapable of begetting.”(9)

In the above-mentioned text we find three types of sexuality prohibited in Hinduism; sexual intercourse with an animal, with a woman of low caste and with men and the last one is sexual intercourse with man that is called homosexuality.

Ruling on Masturbation in Hinduism

According to Hinduism, sexual pleasure is a part of kama, one of the four goals of life on the earth. On the matter of masturbation, Hindu scripture is silent, neither labeling bad nor encouraging the practice. Traditional Islamic thought, on the other hand, regards masturbation as haram, or forbidden. This is usually based upon several Qur’an and Hadith verses, which state that people should refrain from illegal sexual acts and Glorious Qur’an praise those men and women who guard their private parts.

Is Sexual Intercourse in Mouth Prohibited in Hinduism?

There are some sorts of sexual intercourse prohibited in Hinduism. Hindu scriptures say in this connection:

It must not be practised in the open air and must be practised secretly, in the latter passage is added that it must also be in lawful wife, which may mean the restriction to one’s own wife, but it refers to the ritu. Then there is only the vulva for it; if it is done in the mouth, it is a crime. (10)

What is Ritu?

The days of purity for a woman from her menstruation, is called in Hindu terminology as Ritu. So, Ritu is the monthly cleansing, and then in particular those days after the period, from the fourth day onwards, which in the Indian view are proper for conception.

The days and nights when the sexual intercourse is recommended in Hinduism are mentioned specifically. 

Sixteen nights are the “” Season ” of women. Among these he should approach them during the even nights. Let him avoid the Parvana nights, and the first four nights. By so doing he would be even a Brahmachari. (11)

Is Intercourse in period prohibited in Hinduism?

It is highly virtuous to practice love on those days with the wife. Subhadra in vii, 78 cries over her son fallen in the tender bloom of youth, Abhimanyu, and for him wishes in a long drawn out prayer of blessing that he may in the world beyond enjoy the happiness to be won through the noblest, best, and most pious human deeds and thoughts. And here she brings this in, too: “Good luck is for those who are obedient to father and mother and of those that only find their delight with their own wife; and good luck hastens towards those wise men who at the time of ritu go to their wife and keep themselves away from strange women.” 

“They who do as is hitting with their own wife at each ritu, and faithfully carry out the sacrifice by fire overcome disasters.”

Furthermore, cohabitation in the ritu is one of the virtues leading to heaven and also one of the things whereby a Shudra obtains the being born again as a Brahman although not without intermediate stages. But on the other hand, it is then found to be an ethical command that the husband keep not only from all other women, but from his own wife, too, outside the ritu or ritukala (time of the ritu). He that obeys this law and practices chastity is equal in virtue to him that wholly abstains. As chastity has two forms: monasticism and copulation in the ritu only. “How does one become a brahmacharin (sexual ascetic)?” Yudhishthira asks Bhishma, and the answer is: “Let a man go to his own wife during the ritu “the holy duties of the father of the family are enumerated, and there we find: “Let him call his wife only at the time of the ritu (nanritau).”

In addition, copulation outside the ritu is set beside killing a cow and relieving the body into water, and it stands along with the denial of the divine. (12)

In Hinduism, sexual intercourse with unclean woman is strictly forbidden. To have sexual intercourse with a woman during the monthly flow is reckoned among the dreadful crimes set forth in Arjuna’s formula of self-cursing.

To visit a rajasvala (menstruating woman) is one of the seven things whereby a man loses his happiness or long life. (13)

Is Bath after the end of Period Necessary in Hinduism?

It is often emphatically laid down that the husband during the ritu must visit (ritugamana) the wife, and it is a sin for him not to fulfill his married duty then. It also has been mentioned that the evil-minded man (dushtatman) who does not let his wife have her rights, when she has bathed after the monthly cleansing.

The last line of the reference mentions bath for the woman after the end of her menstruation.

Sexual Intercourse in Daytime is Prohibited in Hinduism

There are some regulations for the pleasures of sex in Hinduism. It should not be in public, not outside the vulva, not by day or at certain other times, not with another woman than the wife.

One should never approach his wife in the day-time. “Day and Night are Prajapati; its day is spirit, its night matter. Those who unite in love by day waste their spirit, but to unite in love by night is right.” So also Sankha-Likhita: He should not approach his wife in day-time, though in season.”(14)

“He who does not approach near his wife, when she has bathed after her monthly course, incurs the horrible sin of killing the fetus, there is no doubt in it.”(15)

Conclusion:

After this study in the philosophy of sexuality in both religions of the world; Hinduism and Islam, we can conclude: First: Sexual intercourse is recommended during the ritu (beyond the menstruation days) and this is in Islam and Hinduism.

Second: There are many rulings common denominator between Hinduism and Islam. The adultery is forbidden in both religions, and all types of abnormal sex are forbidden in both religions, and the punishment of adultery is in this world and the hereafter in both religions.

Third: In the case of menstruation according to Islamic jurisprudence. Women have special provisions in worship. They should not perform the prayer or observe fasting, and should not touch the Glorious Quran or enter the mosque unless they are purified of menstruation and do full body bath. However, in Hinduism, women in the case of menstruation are considered unclean and everything that is touched by them is also unclean. And in some areas, menstruating Hindu woman is isolated in separate huts not to touch or to be touched.      

 

———————-

(1) Padma Purana 4:101:174-9.

(2) Manu, xi, 177.

(3) Narada xii, 91-92.

(4) Vāsiṣṭha Dharmasūtra by Vāsiṣṭha, 1882.

(5) Sexual Life in Ancient India: A Study in the Comparative History of Indian

 By Johann Jakob Meyer p.521

(6) Yajnavalkya Smriti, by Yajnavalkya, Commentaries by: Vijnaneshvar, Visvesvara and Balambhatta PayagundeEdited by: S.S. Setlur, Brahmavadin Press, Georgetown, Madras (Chennai), 1912, p. 137)

(7) Ibid.

(8) Sexuality in Hinduism. P. 279

(9) Sexual Life in Ancient India: A Study in the Comparative History of Indian By Johann Jakob Meyer p.242

(10) Ibid.

(11) Yajnavalkya Smriti, by Yajnavalkya, Commentaries by: Vijnaneshvar, Visvesvara and Balambhatta PayagundeEdited by: S.S. Setlur, Brahmavadin Press, Georgetown, Madras (Chennai), 1912, p. 151.

(12) Sexual Life in Ancient India.

(13)Ibid.

(14) Yajnavalkya Smriti P.152.

(15)Ibid.


tags: adultery / hinduism / homosexuality / intercourse / islam / lesbianism / lusts / marriage / masturbation / philosophy / sex / sexuality / wife /



title: Sexuality in Islam and Hinduism (3/4),
content:

Definition of adultery in Hinduism

""

Prohibition and permissibility in the matter of sexuality is for the benefit of human beings and the emergence of diseases such as AIDS and others because of uncontrolled sex is a clear proof.

 In the part 1st and 2nd of this article, the philosophy of sexuality in Islam has been outlined. In this part, we will study and present the philosophy of sexuality in Hinduism in a comparative method. It is clear that Hindu religion according to its religious scriptures is neither absolute licentious nor absolute prohibitive, but inclines to both: the permissibility and prohibition. Similarly, Islam is not absolute licentious and absolutely forbidding, but some sorts of sexuality are permissible and some are prohibited. This is a point of convergence between the two religions in general.

Is Adultery Same in Hinduism and Islam  

There is no doubt that Islam forbids sharing wife with others, but allows one man to marry four women if the man is able to be fair between wives in fulfilling their marital rights and providing food, drink, dress and housing.

According to Hinduism, adultery is believed as an act involving, sexual intercourse between two individuals, of which one is married (not to the same person).

Adultery is sexual intercourse between a married man and a woman not his wife, or between a married woman and a man not her husband.

The definition of adultery as has been given by the prominent scholars of Hinduism is different from the definition of adultery in Islamic terminology. According to Islamic jurisprudence, in the definition of adultery, there is no condition of “married”.

So, Islamic jurisprudence regards as adultery if the sexual intercourse takes place between an unmarried man and woman or between married man and woman who are not husband and wife though both were agree for sex. Only condition is to be adult and grown-up and absence of marriage contract between the parties involved. Islam regards adultery even if the both parties were agreeing with the sexual activity but there was no contract of marriage between them.

The question: Is sexual intercourse with an unmarried woman permissible in Hinduism?

According to my study, there are at least two sorts of sexual relationship allowed in Hinduism out of marriage contract; Niyog and sexual intercourse with a prostitute with payment. We will explain with more detail in the following lines.

Is Prostitution Allowed in Hinduism?

Sexual intercourse with a strange woman and with a woman who has a child from her husband as well as with a woman, who is wife of a person, is prohibited in Hinduism. But the question is; if a woman is independent not a wife, and she does not have a child; is sexual intercourse with her a sort of adultery or not? But if we take the meaning that strange means who is not married with him then the ruling is similar in Hinduism and Islam. But some texts of Hinduism suggest that sexual intercourse with a prostitute who is not wife of a specific man is allowed.

Public Woman and Private Woman

It is important to point out here that the ancient Indians have classified women into two categories: a private and married woman who has a husband and this category of woman is not allowed to be a bed for another person. The other category is a public or unmarried woman who is free from the marriage bond with any specific man or she is a prostitute, in this case, there is no sin or blame in exercising sexual intercourse with her rather, it is allowed for a person to enjoy her body sexually because she is not specific to a certain man through marriage.

Hindu kings in ancient times created a group of women to entertain and help some men traveling and visiting Hindu holy places, or soldiers and regiments on travel and fighting on the border or remote countries and their wives are not with them and they needed to enjoy the physical lust and sexual intercourse to fulfill their sexual needs with payment of some fees. In addition, this type of sexual intercourse had been regarded according to the Hindus a meritorious act and a sort of charity as adultery was only if the woman was married and has a husband. However, it was very bad act if the fee was not paid to the woman for the sexual intercourse. Additionally, it was among the practices of some Hindus to gift their beautiful young daughters to the Brahmins and religious mentors who served the Hindu temples expecting rewards from their gods. (1)

Is Adultery prohibited in Hinduism?

In the light of the sacred texts of Hindu scriptures, we can conclude that adultery in general is prohibited in Hinduism. Additionally, there are some punishments prescribed in Hinduism.

Mahabharat says:

“With unknown women, with such beings as belong to the third sex, with women of loose morals, with the wives of others, and with maidens let not a man have union.”(2)

This text has two possibilities according to our understanding; the first one is that a person should not have a union by marriage, in other words a man is not allowed to marry those who were mentioned in the text. And the other meaning is that a man should not have a sexual intercourse with those who were mentioned because it is a sort of adultery.

The text is also clear in prohibiting the sexual affair with she-males (neither man nor woman) that were denoted by the third sex who are neither complete male nor complete female rather they are the third gender.

Sexual intercourse without marriage

Manusmriti forbids sexual intercourse with a virgin girl (without marriage). It consists of provisions for the atonement of this sin.

Carnal intercourse with sisters by the same mother, with (unmarried) maidens, with females of the lowest castes, with the wives of a friend, or of a son, they declare to be equal to the violation of a Guru’s bed.

He who has had sexual intercourse with sisters by the same mother, with the wives of a friend, or of a son, with unmarried maidens, and with females of the lowest castes, shall perform the penance, prescribed for the violation of a Guru’s bed. (Laws of Manu: 59, CHAPTER XI.)

In Hinduism Hell as a Punishment for the Adultery

It is also noteworthy that besides the unknown woman, the woman with child is named as forbidden in Mahabharata. Furthermore, in all cases a man must never approach the wife of another. For there is naught (curse) in the world which so shortens life as that the man on earth should visit the wife of another. (Manu, IV, 134). As many pores as are on women’s bodies, so many years will he sit in hell. (3)

 Another Punishment for Adultery in Hinduism

The concept of re-birth in Hinduism is its identity; perhaps, the philosophy of re-birth is the common ground between the religious sects and sub-religions of India. Therefore, we find a punishment for adultery according to the philosophy of re-birth.

He who touches another’s wife is born as a wolf, as a dog, as a jackal, and then born as a vulture, a snake, a heron (a large fish-eating bird), as also a crane (long-legged and long-necked bird).

A bad character person who ruins his brother’s wife becomes for a year a Nightingale cock. Who satisfies his lust and puts his hands on the wife of his friend or his teacher (guru), or of the king, is born after death as a swine. He will be five years a swine, ten years a porcupine (an animal with a covering of long, sharp quills), five years a cat, ten years a cock, three months an ant, one month an insect, and then, having had these embodiments will be born in a worm’s existence. In this worm’s existence he will live fourteen months, and then, having atoned for his evil, be born again as a human being. For five offences, indeed, there is no atonement (nishkriti), through them a man becomes an outcast, unworthy of intercourse (asambhashya) with forefathers, gods,  and pious men, goes to hell, is roasted there like a fish, and has to live there on matter and blood. These are: the murder of a Brahman, cow-slaying, intercourse with another’s wife, unbelief, and living on a woman (xiii, 130.37-40). In the same way Ram., iii, 38.30 teaches: “There is no greater sin than to touch another’s wife.” On the other hand xii, 35.25 prescribes, indeed, an atonement for him that seduces the wife of another; but it is noteworthy that it is the same vow of mortification that is also laid on the Brahman-murderer. The former, however, only need keep it for a year. “Then he is free of his sin.” This punishment falls on him “as a robber of another’s property.” (paradarapahari tu parasyapaharan vasu).

These texts clearly indicate that adultery is prohibited in Hinduism and entails a painful punishment in this world and in the Hereafter. In addition, this attitude of Hinduism is identical to that of Islam on this issue.

_________________

(1)Mirza Muhammad Kazim Barlas, Al-Hunood, Fath Al Kareem, Bombay, 1896, vol.3rd, p.415.

(2) Mahabharata, xii, 90.32.

(3) Sexual life in ancient India, p.246.


tags: arsa-vivaha / asura-vivaha / brahma-vivaha / daiva-vivaha / divorce / divorcee / dress-code / equity / gandharva-vivahaa / hijab / hindu-widows / hinduism / islam / islamic-law / kamasutra / modesty / niyog / oppression / paisacha-vivaha / parvati / polygamy / prjapatya-vivaha / rakshasa-vivahaa / sati / second-marriage / sexuality / shariah / veil /



title: Sexuality in Islam and Hinduism (2/4),
content:

By Editorial Staff

Permissible Sex: Worthy of Reward in Islam

""

Mankind is not only a sexual being and not only a divine entity, rather a combination of both.

This issue has been elucidated by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) when he said: “And in man’s sexual intercourse (with his wife) there is a Sadaqah (or a reward equal to a charity given to poor).” They (the Companions) asked: “O Messenger of Allah! Is there a reward for a person among us who satisfies his sexual need?” He answered, “You see, if he satisfies it in something forbidden, would it not be a sin on his part? Similarly, if he satisfies it legally, he should be rewarded”. (Muslim) In this Hadith, Prophet Muhammad has explained clearly that if one comes to his wife for sexual intercourse, and intends to fulfill his own and wife’s sexual need and keep himself and his wife away from forbidden sex, then he gets the reward on his natural act. The same is applicable if the wife intends the same. Furthermore, if both seek a righteous descendant useful to them after the death, they are rewarded for this pure intention.

Supplication before the Intercourse

It has become clear from the previous lines that the sexual intercourse between the spouses is a good act for which both, husband and wife, get reward from Allah the Almighty. Therefore, it is recommended for the couple to recite the following words before beginning the sexual foreplay. (Bismillah i, Allahumma jannibna-sh-shaitan, wa jannibi-sh-shaitan ma razaqtana) ‘In the name of Allah, O Allah, keep us away from the devil  and keep the devil away from what you have blessed us with.’ If the supplication is recited, the child conceived and born after the recitation of this prayer will never be harmed by Satan. This du`aa’ (supplication) is very important because reading this du`aa’ before intercourse keeps the expected child after the intercourse from many kinds of moral, physical, psychological, behavioral, mental and other diseases, especially from the diseases of permanent disabilities and the developmental problems. Reading the du`aa’ keeps Satan from participating in the sexual intercourse.

Why is Anal Sex with Wife Prohibited in Islam?

Muslim jurists have concluded from the evidence of the Glorious Qur’an and the sayings of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) that sexual intercourse in the wife’s back is prohibited like the vaginal intercourse during her bleeding period. Allah the Almighty has forbidden sexual intercourse in her vagina during the time of menstruation because menstruation is dirt and harm so the intercourse in her back (anal) has the same reason. The wife is described in the Qur’an as a place of sowing in order to get progeny and that is in vagina and not in the back. In addition, all types of sexual intercourse and enjoyment between the spouses are permissible and legitimate according to Islam except wife’s vagina during her period. Her entire body for her husband and his entire body for the wife is allowed to be enjoyed sexually except the vagina in the case of menstruation and sex in her back. Homosexuality and anal sex with male or female are strictly forbidden in Islam.

Sex outside Marriage in Islam

The intimate relationship between men and women in Islam is not based on mere free lusts, rather, intercourse outside the marriage is strictly forbidden. While intercourse within the framework of marriage between men and women is a matter of reward and merit in Islam. Additionally, the reward is doubled if the valid sexual intercourse is accompanied by goodwill and pure intention. Basically, intercourse in Islam is a natural source of continuation of human offspring on earth. Also, sex is a natural source for the continuation of animal kingdom on the earth in general.

Prohibited Marriages in Islam

In Islam, marriages between men and women having certain family relationship to one another are prohibited. These prohibited marriages are either of a permanent nature or a temporary. The permanently prohibited marriages have been explained in the Glorious Quran. Allah the Almighty says: “And do not marry those [women] whom your fathers married, except what has already occurred. Indeed, it was an immorality and hateful [to Allah] and was evil as a way. Prohibited to you [for marriage] are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father’s sisters, your mother’s sisters, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters, your [milk] mothers who nursed you, your sisters through nursing, your wives’ mothers, and your step-daughters under your guardianship [born] of your wives unto whom you have gone in. But if you have not gone in unto them, there is no sin upon you. And [also prohibited are] the wives of your sons who are from your [own] loins, and that you take [in marriage] two sisters simultaneously, except for what has already occurred. Indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.” (An-Nisaa` 4:22-24) The relations mentioned in the Glorious Quran in the above-mentioned verses are not marriageable in Islam, and the marriage is invalid if conducted.

Some Temporary Prohibited Marriages

According to Islamic Jurisprudence, there are some marriages that are invalid for temporary reasons and when the reasons end the prohibition ends as well. Those marriages include the following: 1) Keeping two sisters in marriage together at the same time is prohibited in Islam. Allah the Almighty says in this regard: And [also prohibited is] for you to take [in marriage] two sisters simultaneously, except for what has already occurred. Indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful. (An-Nisaa’ 4:23) Similarly, it is prohibited in Islam to take [in marriage] simultaneously a woman and her paternal aunt or maternal aunt. 2) The wife divorced three times by her husband is not allowed to remarry the same husband as they cannot return to each other but only after she gets married with another husband and is divorced again. Allah the Almighty says: And if he has divorced her [for the third time], then she is not lawful to him afterward until [after] she marries a husband other than him. (Al-Baqarah 2:230) 3) The fifth wife for a person, who is already married to four wives and the wives are still in his marriage. Islam has permitted a man to marry four wives and keep them in his marriage in one time if he is able to fulfill their rights properly. So, it is not permissible for him to marry the fifth. Allah the Almighty says: Then marry those that please you of [other] women, two or three or four. But if you fear that you will not be just, then [marry only] one or those, your right hand possesses. That is more suitable that you may not incline [to injustice]. (An-Nisaa’ 4:3) 4) It is forbidden to marry the wife of others, and also the woman who is in the waiting period after a divorce or death. Allah the Almighty says: And [also prohibited to you are all] married women except those your right hands possess. (An-Nisaa’ 4:24) Allah the Almighty says about waiting period for a divorced woman: Divorced women remain in waiting for three periods. (Al-Baqarah 2:228) About the waiting period after the death of the husband, Allah the Almighty says: And those who are taken in death among you and leave wives behind – they, [the wives, shall] wait four months and ten [days]. (Al-Baqarah 2:234) 5) It is not allowed for a Muslim woman to get married with a non-Muslim man. In addition, it is not permissible for a Muslim man to get married with a polytheist or atheist woman but he is allowed to marry a Jew or Christian woman according to some Muslim jurists. Allah the almighty says in this regard: And do not marry polytheistic women until they believe. And a believing slave woman is better than a polytheist, even though she might please you. And do not marry polytheistic men [to your women] until they believe. And a believing slave is better than a polytheist, even though he might please you. (Al-Baqarah 2:221) Furthermore, Allah the Almighty says: And [lawful in marriage are] chaste women from among the believers and chaste women from among those who were given the Scripture before you, when you have given them their due compensation, desiring chastity, not unlawful sexual intercourse or taking [secret] lovers. (Al-Ma’idah 5:5)

Forbidden Sexual Intercourse in Islamic Jurisprudence

We will discuss here some forms of the forbidden sexual intercourse in Islamic Jurisprudence which are not mentioned directly in the Glorious Quran, but they were mentioned in the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) or in the consensus of the Muslim scholars. According to the Islamic jurisprudence, there are four types of basic legislating sources for permission or prohibition in Islam: 1- the Glorious Qur’an’ 2- the Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him); 3- The consensus of the Muslim scholars on the permissibility or prohibition; and 4- The Qiyas (analogical reasoning). If anything is found permissible or prohibited in one of these sources, it is forbidden or permissible in Islamic jurisprudence, although the four sources are not same in strength rather, there is a big difference between them in authenticity.

Cohabitation of Wives Simultaneously

It is not permissible in Islam to have sexual intercourse with more than one wives at the same time and in one bed. Suppose, if a man has four wives, the husband is allowed to have sexual intercourse with each wife alone and separately but it is not permissible to have intercourse with two of them or all of them at once. Co-wives or the fellow wives are not allowed to uncover their private parts to each other. All of them are wives of the same man, but not wives to each other.

Sexual Intercourse with Animals

According to the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and the consensus of Muslim scholars and the Qiyas (analogical reasoning), sex with animal is prohibited in Islamic jurisprudence, for both men and woman.

Masturbation in Islamic Jurisprudence

Most Muslim scholars forbade masturbation for male and female, referring to the verse of the Glorious Qur’an: And they who guard their private parts, except from their wives or those their right hands possess, for indeed, they will not be blamed. But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors. (Al Mu’minun 23:5-7) In addition, the sexual intercourse; whether permissible or prohibited; both lead to the major ritual impurity for both parties. According to Islamic jurisprudence after the sexual intercourse, a full body bath is required before any prayer, entering a mosque or touching a Qur’an. In addition, this bath is compulsory after any ejaculation caused by any sexual activity. Moreover, the sexual intercourse between husband and wife must be kept in complete secrecy, privacy and away from the eyes and ears of the people and it is prohibited to disclose the private activities done or talked between the couples during the intimacy to other people. Therefore, it is forbidden in Islam to take a video or photo of the intercourse between the husband and wife to show others. Additionally, lesbianism and homosexuality in Islam are prohibited and are considered a major sin.

Abstract:

The issue of sex in Islam revolves between permission and prohibition. The subject of sex in Islam is characterized by dignity, shyness, decency and privacy, not to harm others and not to be harmed by others. Islam does not deprive human being of fun, pleasure or enjoyment in the framework of common taste, social norm, religious tradition intending to build a stable, peaceful, strong and tranquil society and community through the family regarding the sexuality a source of good offspring. The philosophy of Islam does not view human being as mere animal or mere angel. Islam sees mankind as a mixture of materiality and spirituality, rather, human being is a respected entity in the universe that surpasses the angels if he/she is good and rightious and lower than animal if he/ she is evil and bad.

To be continued…


tags: arsa-vivaha / asura-vivaha / brahma-vivaha / daiva-vivaha / divorce / divorcee / dress-code / ejaculation / equality-of-woman / equity / featured / gandharva-vivahaa / hijab / hindu-widows / hinduism / homosexuality-polygamy / islam / islamic-law / lesbianism / masturbation / modesty / niyog / oppression / paisacha-vivaha / parvati / polygamy / prjapatya-vivaha / rakshasa-vivahaa / sati / second-marriage / sexuality / shariah / true-religion-of-islam / veil / woman-rights-in-islam / woman-status-in-islam /



title: Fruits of Hajj (2/3),
content:

Fruits of Hajj (2/3)

"You

You are commanded to keep patient and endure the difficulties and annoyance from others, and do not react to others harassment except in good way and with toleration.

By Mohamed Okasha

You are commanded to keep patient and endure the difficulties and annoyance from others, and do not react to other’s harassment except in good way and with toleration.

Hajj, the fifth pillar of Islam, is one of the best deeds. The Prophet (peace be upon him) was once asked, “Which deed is the best?” He said, “Belief in Allah and His Messenger.” He was asked, “Then what?” He said, “Jihad for the sake of Allah.” He was asked, “Then what?” He said, “An accepted Hajj.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

We talked in the previous article about four messages that one catches from visiting the sacred House of Allah, the Ka`bah, for Hajj. We are going to continue this interesting topic as we find it useful for the pilgrims to take these messages into their consideration, having returned from Hajj.

Fifth: Message of Belonging to Islam

When one puts the first foot in Mecca, one gets amazed not only by the enormous numbers of people but also by the diversity of their colors, genders, ages and languages. One sees the Arab and the non-Arab, the males and the females, the old and the young, and people with different colors, nationalities, cultures, histories, jobs and life conditions. The common factor between all of those is one thing, namely belonging to Islam. If you want to describe all of them with one word, you can simply say “Muslims”, a designation given to them long ago by the Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham, peace be upon him). The Glorious Qur’an says:

And strive for Allah with the striving due to Him. He has chosen you and has not placed upon you in the religion any difficulty. [It is] the religion of your father, Abraham. Allah named you “Muslims”. (Al-Hajj 22:78)

They follow this religion because it knows no discrimination on any basis. The only thing with which a human being excels another human being according to Islam is attaining taqwa, a word that means piousness, fear of Allah and obedience to Him.

In his Hajj, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) stood on the `Arafat mountain speaking to the masses of people who offered Hajj with him, in his Final Sermon, “No Arab is superior to a non-Arab and no white man is superior to a black man, except in terms of taqwa.”

Affiliation to Islam means to accept Allah as your God, Muhammad as your Messenger and Islam as your way of life.

Sixth: Message of Humbleness

When commencing Hajj, a pilgrim enters into a state of Ihram (ritual state for Hajj or `Umrah). Every male pilgrim wears a specific dress consisting of two white garments that have no pockets or decoration. It is so simple that reminds of the hereafter.

In Prayer, you stand side by side with someone who may be less than you in rank or position, but still he is not allowed to wear expensive clothes, precious watch and fragrant perfume, even he can not cut his nails or trim his beard. As in Hajj, once you enter into the state of Ihram, you have to wear only two white garments wrapped around your body, and you are forbidden to wear any sewn clothes, apply perfume, or trim your nails or hair. All pilgrims looks the same, with same dress and look. Does not this teach you humbleness?

Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “Wealth does not decrease because of charity, and Allah increases His slave in honor when he forgives others. And no one humbles himself before Allah but Allah will raise him (in status).” (Muslim)

Seventh: The Message of Forbearance

The great masses of people bring unbearable crowd, annoyance and harassment as well as the calls of help from others. In this atmosphere you offer your Hajj rites with utmost hope that Allah accepts your deeds, and fear that your Hajj may be rejected.  However, forbearance is what makes this easy for you. You are commanded to keep patient and endure the difficulties and annoyance from others, and do not react to other’s harassment except in good way and with toleration. Actually, this is another message of Hajj.

There are three kinds of forbearance: forbearance on performing worship, forbearance on keeping away from sins and forbearance on the decrees of fate. In Hajj, you are experienced to a lot of hardship and fatigue also you have stayed for a long time in waiting and you are commanded to endure and tolerate. Almighty Allah says:

O you who have believed, persevere and endure and remain stationed and fear Allah that you may be successful. (Aal `Imran 3:200)

Indeed, the patient will be given their reward without account. (Al-Zumar 39:10)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Whoever performs Hajj and does not commit any obscenity or commit any evil will go back (free of) sin as on the day his mother bore him.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

________________________

  Taken from: www.new-muslims.info with modification.


tags: allah / hajj / islam / kaabah / makkah / mecca / pilgrimage /



title: An Ex-Hindu Leads about 108,000 Non-Muslims to Islam,
content:

By Sameer Mandhro

Deen Muhammad an ex-Hindu, reverted to Islam in 1989. He said when he read the Glorious Qur’an he realized that false gods were useless. Such are Deen Muhammad Sheikh’s powers of persuasion that he led 108,000 people to the light of Islam since 1989, the year he left his birth religion Hinduism behind.

Now he is the president of the Jami`ah Masjid Allah Wali and Madrassa `A’ishah T`aleem-ul Qur’an – an institute for the introduction of Islam.

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Where is the sword in the hands of this man? Where is the money in the possession of this person? Where is the power or authority in the hands of this simple man?

His zeal for D`awah is ideal, as he says: “My heartfelt wish is that the entire world becomes Muslim.” He expressed his sublime and pure goal, when he was asked about his mission in a celebration of new Muslims who accepted Islam on his hands.

He added: “I always loved Islam; I read the Glorious Qur’an and realized that 360 gods were not of any use to me.”

At first, he had to study the Glorious Qur’an in secret. There was the risk of being misunderstood if a Muslim caught him with the holy book. He started fasting and in fact, he would begin a day before Ramadan started.

Sheikh’s mother grew alarmed at her son’s forays into another faith. She thought that if she married him off, he would leave. Thus, he was barely 15 when his wedding took place, followed by the blessings of four girls and eight boys.

Despite this, he was drawn back to his curiosity and managed to find a teacher, Sain Muhammad Jagsi, who instructed him in the Glorious Qur’an and Hadiths or sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

Fortunately, Sheikh’s uncle was of the same mind and the two men agreed that they would support each other.

After Deen Muhammad Sheikh accepted Islam, he made it his mission to call others to the message of Islam. He began preaching of Islam among his own family, before addressing others. Encounters with the rich and powerful Muslims helped pave the way and they offered Sheikh money and required funds in order to achieve his Da`wah goals. He urged concerned authorities to provide jobs for some new Muslims.

Now, Sheikh says, his fame has spread and people come to him from remote parts of the country from all religions and sects, who liked to accept Islam. A small mosque has sprung up in his residential compound along with a number of rooms where children – mostly girls – are taught how to say their prayers and recite the Glorious Qur’an.

Sheikh is aware of the difficulties new Muslims face when they came to follow a totally new system of life. He makes life easy for the first 40 days. “They only have to pray obligatory prayers!”

In addition, Sheikh says: “I tell them that I was a Hindu too.”

He alleges that he was kidnapped along with his daughter-in-law by influential Hindus who threatened him so that he would stop inviting people to Islam.

Despite 108,000 new Muslims on his call, the record of every one of those new Muslims has been kept in written form with detailed information about their names, families, identities, addresses. However, Sheikh still doesn’t feel that his work had been done or his duty has been fulfilled. He wants everyone to be a Muslim and learn from his example.

The image of this post belongs to a great man, who is not a governor nor an authority nor a rich, nor a Sultan, he is only a simple man who was guided by Allah to Islam and his heart have seen the light of Islam after he was a Hindu. Indeed, it is the effect of his words and deeds and the blessings of Allah the Almighty and His special support for his noble mission. That is why thousands of people have been guided on his hands to the light of Islam. It is not a history or forgotten past, it is in our time and it is present in our society. It is a true example of Islamic Da`wah that never encourages forceful conversion.  It is ample evidence that Islam never was spread by the sword.

In my conclusion, it is the blessing of the message of Islam, the pure, clear and evident religion of Allah. The question is why people do not accept Hinduism despite their noticeable endeavors; as they tried their best to lure the people to their religion through the establishment of numerous organizations and movements such as the movement of Shudhdhi. This example makes very easy to understand the matchless success of Islamic Da`wah throughout the history that never trusted in money or power.

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Source:  www.tribune.com.pk. with modifications. 


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