Jesus was a Muslim.  Yes you read that correctly, Jesus was a Muslim and one of the mightiest messengers of Allaah swt.  Jesus came from the same prophetic traditions as Adam, David, Moses, Solomon, and all of the Prophets whom all came with the same message of Tawhid or Pure Monotheism.  The worship of only the One God which is Allah swt.

Every Muslim believes in the virgin birth of Jesus from Marium (Mary).  You cannot be a Muslim if you do not believe this.  Muslims believe that Jesus was the Messiah, that he was the word of God, and that he will return and kill the anti-Christ.  However, Muslims do not believe that Jesus is God or the son of God.  This is considered blasphemous in Islam and constitutes Shirk which is an unforgivable sin.  Muslims do not believe in the crucifixion either, instead Muslims believe that Allah swt protected Jesus and brought him up to heaven while putting his likeness or resemblance on the cross.  This is interesting in light of the fact that the Gospel of Thomas said that Judas was the one found on the cross and that Judas was the twin or lookalike of Jesus.  In fact Thomas in Ancient Greek means Twin.

When Jesus prayed, he did not pray to himself, he prayed to Allah swt.  He also said that he did nothing on his own but only with the permission of the Lord in the Heavens.

Jesus was a shining example of how to live and in fact there is more information preserved about Jesus in the Islamic texts than in the Christian texts.  Jesus even prayed as the modern day Muslims.


title: Silent Years of Jesus!,
content:

Gospels always wink an eye at the early life of Jesus in his childhood. They only mention his relation through to Joseph the carpenter and his journey to Jerusalem as a ritual customary act for his people at the time. Mathew outlines the early life of Jesus in the following lines:

“This is how the birth of Jesus the Messiah came about: His mother Mary was pledged to be married to Joseph, but before they came together, she was found to be pregnant through the Holy Spirit. Because Joseph her husband was faithful to the law, and yet did not want to expose her to public disgrace, he had in mind to divorce her quietly. But after he had considered this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, “Joseph son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. She will give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins.” All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: “The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, and they will call him Immanuel” (which means “God with us”). When Joseph woke up, he did what the angel of the Lord had commanded him and took Mary home as his wife.” (Matthew, 1: 18-25)

He showed us that Jesus was born in Bethlehem and the Magi of the East came carrying the prophecy of his birth as the king of the Jews. He goes on to mention Herod’s talk with the Magi:

“Then Herod called the Magi secretly and found out from them the exact time the star had appeared. He sent them to Bethlehem and said, “Go and search carefully for the child. As soon as you find him, report to me, so that I too may go and worship him.” After they had heard the king, they went on their way, and the star they had seen when it rose went ahead of them until it stopped over the place where the child was. When they saw the star, they were overjoyed. On coming to the house, they saw the child with his mother Mary, and they bowed down and worshiped him. Then they opened their treasures and presented him with gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh. And having been warned in a dream not to go back to Herod, they returned to their country by another route. When they had gone, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream. “Get up,” he said, “take the child and his mother and escape to Egypt. Stay there until I tell you, for Herod is going to search for the child to kill him. ” (Matthew 2: 1-13)

After Joseph heard of the death of King Herod, the angel appeared in a dream to him in Egypt, saying,”

“take the child and his mother and escape to Egypt.. “(Matthew 2: 19-23). He went Galilee then lived with Jesus in Nazareth.

Mark mentioned nothing about the childhood of Christ and his birth he talked directly about his meeting with John the Baptist while preaching. John, as well, overlooked the childhood of Jesus!""

Surprisingly, some of Biblical thinkers acknowledge these facts, but they, however, present untenable justifications to the issue. Saud Suhail, an Arab priest, says,  “These are silent years! Gospels and the New Testament do not mention anything about them. What the Gospels mentioned about the early life of Jesus is very little: His birth (Luke 2: 1-7), being  circumcised and named when he was eight days old, (Luke 2:21), presenting him to the Lord in the Temple when he was 40 days old (Luke 2: 22-24), the escape of the family, Joseph and Mary and the child to Egypt for fear of the oppression of Herod (Matthew 2: 13-15), bringing Jesus to Jerusalem on Passover when he was 12 years old (Luke 2: 39-53). Then the Gospels are silent and do not mention anything about his life for 18 consecutive years until he became 30 years old. From the age of 12 till 30 are silent years in gospels. One may wonder that Jesus’s ministry longed for only three years in before being killed when he was 33 years old then rose to the heaven, bringing salvation and redemption to the sinful world. Thus, what Christ was Jesus doing in those silent years?! ”

Suhail claimed that the Christian history stopped for a moment to answer this question, but through “Apocrypha texts, which include Christological and theological fallacies, which are incompatible with the correct image and concept of Jesus Christ, as presented by the Bible and New Testament which are canonical. These Apocrypha-texts, according to him, claim that  Jesus went to India and called for Buddhism and include myths and fictional supernatural practices by Jesus in his childhood.

He insists that Jesus’ childhood was normal and was not miraculous; he justifies its silence in the following false interpretations: “This verse (Luke 2:52) gives us the idea that Christ was growing like other people in wisdom, rank and grace. The second observation, about the practice of Christ during the silent years, indicates that Jesus worked in carpentry as Joseph did, as Mark says, “Isn’t this the carpenter the son of Mary…” (Mark 6: 3). Finally, there is, however, a spiritual lesson we may draw from such silent years that one should not show-off and seek power or authority, for the great Savior Jesus Christ spent most of his life in humility, tranquility and peace, away from the love of show-off. He lived most of his life in silence in preparation to a fruitful spiritual ministry in the Kingdom of God, which has changed and continues to change millions of people throughout history! ”

However, is not the researcher’s right to know the fallacies by such Apocrypha-texts in order to weigh them and put them in their proper place? Is the mention of supernatural practices of Christ in his childhood enough to disregard these texts?! Could not such supernatural practices be as a prophecy foretelling the content of his message?!

The Qur’an as the seal of the heavenly scriptures presents such phase of Christ’s early life in detail. We hear the tongue of Christ in the cradle telling the truth which shocks many Christians today. As a baby Jesus declares his bondage to God Almighty as his servant or worshiper and not being a son to Him God nor to Joseph the Carpenter:

“So she conceived him, and she withdrew with him to a remote place. And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm tree. She said, “Oh, I wish I had died before this and was in oblivion, forgotten.” But he called her from below her, “Do not grieve; your Lord has provided beneath you a stream. And shake toward you the trunk of the palm tree; it will drop upon you ripe, fresh dates. So eat and drink and be contented. And if you see from among humanity anyone, say, ‘Indeed, I have vowed to the Most Merciful abstention, so I will not speak today to [any] man.’ ” Then she brought him to her people, carrying him. They said, “O Mary, you have certainly done a thing unprecedented. O sister of Aaron, your father was not a man of evil, nor was your mother unchaste.” So she pointed to him. They said, “How can we speak to one who is in the cradle a child?” [Jesus] said, “Indeed, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the Scripture and made me a prophet. And He has made me blessed wherever I am and has enjoined upon me prayer and zakah as long as I remain alive And [made me] dutiful to my mother, and He has not made me a wretched tyrant. And peace is on me the day I was born and the day I will die and the day I am raised alive.” That is Jesus, the son of Mary – the word of truth about which they are in dispute. It is not [befitting] for Allah to take a son; exalted is He! When He decrees an affair, He only says to it, “Be,” and it is. [Jesus said], “And indeed, Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him. That is a straight path.” (19:22-36)

These verses (ayas) declare the chastity and modesty of Mary. She was away from adultery and carried Jesus without a husband. The Qur’an also presents the sound doctrine carried by Jesus and for which he called. It shows the Jews and Christians the truth of God and rectify some of their false doctrines,

“O People of the Scripture, there has come to you Our Messenger making clear to you much of what you used to conceal of the Scripture and overlooking much. There has come to you from Allah a light and a clear Book. By which Allah guides those who pursue His pleasure to the ways of peace and brings them out from darkness into the light, by His permission, and guides them to a straight path.” (5: 15-16 )

It is strange enough that Luke mentions two contradicting phrases in his Gospel when he transmitted Mary’s reply to the angel when he gave her the glad tiding that she would conceive a baby:

“But the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary; you have found favor with God.” (Luke 29: 1-35). She replied, “How will this be, since I do not know a man?”

Luke allegedly attributes Jesus to God as his son and mixes the words of the angel with his own infidel words:

“He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David,” (Luke, 1: 32)

As for the Qur’an, falsehood cannot not reach it; It invalidates the Christian claim and slander that Christ is the Son of God or the son of man. He is the noble Word of Allah (God) as created by his word “be and he was”

“[And mention] when the angels said, “O Mary, indeed Allah gives you good tidings of a word from Him, whose name will be the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary – distinguished in this world and the Hereafter and among those brought near [to Allah]. He will speak to the people in the cradle and in maturity and will be of the righteous.”. (3:45-46


tags: featured-image / silent-years-in-the-bible / silent-years-joyce-meyer / silent-years-love-nikki / silent-years-of-jesus / silent-years-series /



title: The Holy Spirit Between Christianity And Islam,
content:

Christian Concept of the Holy Spirit

For centuries, Christianity had an exaggerated look at the noble position of the Holy Spirit, angel  Gabriel (May Allah’s Peace be upon him). We, even, see many Christians who do not know who was the Holy Spirit!

The names of the Holy Spirit abound in the Bible. Its attributes, even, shared some of the divine attributes of God! In his book (The Holy Spirit and our relationship with It), Dr. Sameh Morris, a priest, claims that the Holy Spirit is:

  1. A hypostasis which is equal to the Father and the Son because Jesus said,

    “Go and make disciples of all nations, and baptize them in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit” (Matthew, 19:28).

    Christians infer that the phrase “in the name” refers to a trinity (three in one).They moreover support such claim by what Paul mentioned in 2Corinthians (14:13),

    “May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all”.

    They claimed that the association of the name of the Holy Spirit with God in one context means being equal to Him!""

  2. A creator! And Creates! They cite the words of Job:

    “The Spirit of God has made me; the breath of the Almighty gives me life.” (Job 33:4).

  3. And Psalms(104:30):

    “When you send your Spirit, they are created, and you renew the face of the ground”.

  4. A One who gives Life. Christians support such a heinous doctrine by Paul’s words:

    “And if the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead is living in you, he who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies because of his Spirit who lives in you..” (Romans 8: 11).

    And the words of Christ to Nicodemus:

    “Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit.” (John 6:3).

  5. sanctifies life (1 Corinthians 6: 11).
  6. Everywhere! (Psalm 139: 7-10).
  7. Knows everything! (1 Corinthians 9: 9-11).
  8. Makes Miracles! (Psalm 72:18).

Islamic Concept of the Holy Spirit

Such exaggerated view of the Holy Spirit, Gabriel peace be upon him, is different from the moderate Islamic view of It. In Islam, Gabriel is only  an angel who was sent by God Almighty Allah to inspire Prophets with revelation and support them. He should not be elevated to any divine position or rank where he be a partner to Almighty Allah.

Gabriel, being a spirit by name, does not mean that such a characteristic is specific to him, for all other creatures are  spirits of God in the meaning that they all are created by him Almighty.

God specializes Gabriel with such name “spirit” to elevate his rank among creations and show his honor and virtue, and distinguish him from other spirits. It should not be understood that Gabriel is a spirit of God in the meaning that he is a part of Him or partner to Him.

In Islam, Gabriel is called “Ruh Al-Qudus” (i.e. Purified Spirit) and Al-Ruh Al-Amin (i.e. Truthful and Honest Spirit). He is not “holy” as Christians claim.

The reason that Gabriel was called “Ruh (spirit), as al-Jayyani, puts it, “Because souls are revived by him as the bodies are given life by spirit”.

Al-Razi, claims that he was called so because he was made of a spirit. Others said that he was called so because he brought the religion with which souls revive and live. Others claimed that he was only created as a soul without body.

He was called “Al-Amin” because he was very honest in delivering revelation to prophets and powerful in the execution of the commands of God.

In the Qur’an Gabriel is given many names and attributes which do not deem him as god or elevate him to divine positions that which he does not deserve. He was described as the “One So Powerful and One of sound Shape” (53:6). 

Gabriel is the best of angels who so honest and powerful in delivering revelation to Prophets without shortcoming. He was also described as

“A noble messenger [Who is] possessed of power in the accompany of the Owner of the Throne (God, Allah), Secure [in position], Obeyed there [in the heavens] and Trustworthy”.(81:21/Also see 81:24)

Allah tells about his mission as a messenger delivering revelation to Prophet Muhammad (May Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him),

“And indeed, the Qur’an is the revelation of the Lord of the worlds. The Trustworthy Spirit has brought it down”(26:194)

He called “trustworthy” because he was of good manners and was the best of angels and being entrusted with revelation to  prophets and others

He was so strong that he turned down the city of the People of Lot who denied the message of Prophet Lot. He is near to God seizing a highly position among other angels

Once the Prophet saw Gabriel as having six-hundred wings. In his journey to Jerusalem, while accompanied by Gabriel, the Prophet said that “Gabriel made a great hole in a great stone and grasped the great animal Al-Buraq (which carried them up to the sky) with only one finger!

In Islam, Gabriel is called “Ruh Al-Qudus” (i.e. Purified Spirit) because he was created from purity or he was perfect in purity.

He was, moreover, called “spirit” because body cannot live without spirit for he carried the revelation which was the spirit for all people.

One may perceive the Christian confusion as regards to the concept of creation. The hands of the “Holy Spirit” does not create; it should not exceed the mere direct execution of God’s command of creation. The Creator is only Allah Almighty who says,

“Had there been within the heavens and earth gods besides Allah, they both would have been ruined. So exalted is Allah, Lord of the Throne, above what they describe.” (21:22)

It has been said that such “ruin” in creation may lead to a conflict and contradiction where two gods have two conflicting commands of either giving life or not.

Allah addressed Jesus to remind him of the blessings he conferred upon him saying,

“O Jesus, Son of Mary, remember My favor upon you and upon your mother when I supported you with the Pure Spirit and you spoke to the people in the cradle and in maturity; and [remember] when I taught you writing and wisdom and the Torah and the Gospel; and when you designed from clay [what was] like the form of a bird with My permission, then you breathed into it, and it became a bird with My permission; and you healed the blind and the leper with My permission; and when you brought forth the dead with My permission; and when I restrained the Children of Israel from [killing] you when you came to them with clear proofs and those who disbelieved among them said, “This is not but obvious magic.” (5: 110). 

The repetition of the phrase “with My permission” alludes to the fact that Allah is the only creator and Jesus did not create and his acts were mere execution of Allah’s commands.

__________________________________

References

Ibn Uthaymeen, Sharh Thalathat Al-Usul.

Ibn Hajar, Fatah al-Bari.

Sameh Morris, Holy Spirit And Our Relationship to It


tags: featured-image / holy-spirit / holy-spirit-chords / holy-spirit-lyrics / holy-spirit-school / holy-spirit-you-are-welcome-here / hurch / the-holy-spirit-between-christianity-and-islam /



title: الصلاة بين المسيحية والإسلام من المنظور النظرى والعملى,
content:

إن شعيرة الصلاة من أهم العبادات التى جاءت بها الشرائع السماوية فلم تخل منها أى شريعة سماوية. وهذا المفهوم تؤكده الرسالة الخاتمة رسالة الإسلام كما جاء في القرآن:

“لِّكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ جَعَلْنَا مَنسَكًا هُمْ نَاسِكُوهُ”(67:22)

والقرآن الكريم لم يعرض لتفصيلات هذه العبادة كثيرا في الإنجيل والتوراة ولكن ألفت إلى وجود تلك العبادة وإلى ركوع مريم مع الراكعين: (43:3)

“يَا مَرْيَمُ اقْنُتِي لِرَبِّكِ وَاسْجُدِي وَارْكَعِي مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ”(43:3) “وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ  إِنَّهُ كَانَ صَادِقَ الْوَعْدِ وَكَانَ رَسُولًا نَّبِيًّا ﴿٥٤﴾ وَكَانَ يَأْمُرُ أَهْلَهُ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَكَانَ عِندَ رَبِّهِ مَرْضِيًّا”(19/54-55)،

ويقول القرآن عن عيسى بن مريم-عليه السلام-:

“قَالَ إِنِّي عَبْدُ اللَّـهِ آتَانِيَ الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلَنِي نَبِيًّا ﴿٣٠﴾ وَجَعَلَنِي مُبَارَكًا أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُ وَأَوْصَانِي بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ مَا دُمْتُ حَيًّا ﴿٣١﴾ وَبَرًّا بِوَالِدَتِي وَلَمْ يَجْعَلْنِي جَبَّارًا شَقِيًّا” (19/30-32). 

إن المتصفح لأوراق الكتاب المقدس يرى تباينا كثيرا بين ما عليه الشعائر المسيحية اليوم، وما سطر في ذلك الكتاب. لذا يهدف هذا المقال إلى استكشاف عبادة الصلاة في الكتاب المقدس ومناقشة ذلك في ضوء رسالة الإسلام.

""

صلاة كنسية

بالنظر في الكتاب المقدس نرى أن الصلاة قد ذكرت كثيرا فيه وغالبا ما جاءت في معرض التضرع إلى الرب أو سؤال الحاجة:

رسالة بولس الرسول الثانية إلى أهل كورنثوس 1: 11:

“وَأَنْتُمْ أَيْضًا مُسَاعِدُونَ بِالصَّلاَةِ لأَجْلِنَا، لِكَيْ يُؤَدَّى شُكْرٌ لأَجْلِنَا مِنْ أَشْخَاصٍ كَثِيرِينَ، عَلَى مَا وُهِبَ لَنَا بِوَاسِطَةِ كَثِيرِينَ”.

لكن المفهوم الإسلامى للصلاة ينضبط كثيرا بالمقارنة بالمفهوم المسيحى فالإسلام يفرق بين المفهوم اللغوى للصلاة بمعنى الدعاء والصلاة كشعيرة عبادية تعمل على وصل المخلوق بالخالق. وقد جاء الخلط في الكتاب المقدس بين المعنيين فنفتقد الطقوس العملية لشعيرة الصلاة في الكتاب المقدس ولا نجد إلا مثل تلك العمومات التى لا تروى ظمأ العطشان ولا تروى غليله من تلك العبادة.

لقد جاءت بعد الملامح لبعض الصلوات في الكتاب المقدس والتى تظهر التناقض الشديد بين ما قررته الكنائس المعاصرة من صلوات وما حددته لأتباعها من طقوس في تلك الصلوات، فبمطالعة الكتاب المقدس نرى تشابها في بعض الطقوس مع شعيرة الصلاة في الإسلام والتى نحتها الكنائس اليوم جانبا.

لقد نهى عيسى عليه السلام عن المظاهر الجوفاء في العبادة:

” وأما أنت فمتى صليت فادخل إلى مخدعك، وأغلق بابك وصلِّ إلى أبيك الذي في الخفاء؛ فأبوك الذي يرى في الخفاء يجازيك علانيةً” (متى 6: 6)

ونرى في الكتاب المقدس سجودا:رسالة بولس الرسول الأولى إلى تيموثاوس (2: 8)

“فَأُرِيدُ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ الرِّجَالُ فِي كُلِّ مَكَانٍ، رَافِعِينَ أَيَادِيَ طَاهِرَةً، بِدُونِ غَضَبٍ وَلاَ جِدَال”.

سفر رؤيا يوحنا اللاهوتي 7: 11:

“وَجَمِيعُ الْمَلاَئِكَةِ كَانُوا وَاقِفِينَ حَوْلَ الْعَرْشِ، وَالشُّيُوخِ وَالْحَيَوَانَاتِ الأَرْبَعَةِ، وَخَرُّوا أَمَامَ الْعَرْشِ عَلَى وُجُوهِهِمْ وَسَجَدُوا للهِ”.

سفر رؤيا يوحنا اللاهوتي 14: 7:

“قَائِلًا بِصَوْتٍ عَظِيمٍ: «خَافُوا اللهَ وَأَعْطُوهُ مَجْدًا، لأَنَّهُ قَدْ جَاءَتْ سَاعَةُ دَيْنُونَتِهِ، وَاسْجُدُوا لِصَانِعِ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ وَالْبَحْرِ وَيَنَابِيعِ الْمِيَاهِ»”.

سفر رؤيا يوحنا اللاهوتي 15: 4:

“مَنْ لاَ يَخَافُكَ يَا رَبُّ وَيُمَجِّدُ اسْمَكَ؟ لأَنَّكَ وَحْدَكَ قُدُّوسٌ، لأَنَّ جَمِيعَ الأُمَمِ سَيَأْتُونَ وَيَسْجُدُونَ أَمَامَكَ، لأَنَّ أَحْكَامَكَ قَدْ أُظْهِرَتْ».

سفر رؤيا يوحنا اللاهوتي 19: 4:

“وَخَرَّ الأَرْبَعَةُ وَالْعِشْرُونَ شَيْخًا وَالأَرْبَعَةُ الْحَيَوَانَاتِ وَسَجَدُوا للهِ الْجَالِسِ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ قَائِلِينَ: «آمِينَ! هَلِّلُويَا!»”.

رسالة بولس الرسول الأولى إلى أهل كورنثوس 14: 25:

“وَهكَذَا تَصِيرُ خَفَايَا قَلْبِهِ ظَاهِرَةً. وَهكَذَا يَخِرُّ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ وَيَسْجُدُ للهِ، مُنَادِيًا: أَنَّ اللهَ بِالْحَقِيقَةِ فِيكُمْ.”

إنجيل متى 26: 39:

“ثُمَّ تَقَدَّمَ قَلِيلًا وَخَرَّ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ، وَكَانَ يُصَلِّي قَائِلًا: «يَا أَبَتَاهُ، إِنْ أَمْكَنَ فَلْتَعْبُرْ عَنِّي هذِهِ الْكَأْسُ، وَلكِنْ لَيْسَ كَمَا أُرِيدُ أَنَا بَلْ كَمَا تُرِيدُ أَنْتَ»”.

ونرى في صلواته تسبيحا وتمجيدا واستغفارا:

سفر أعمال الرسل 16: 25:

“وَنَحْوَ نِصْفِ اللَّيْلِ كَانَ بُولُسُ وَسِيلاَ يُصَلِّيَانِ وَيُسَبِّحَانِ اللهَ، وَالْمَسْجُونُونَ يَسْمَعُونَهُمَا. وَمَتَّنْيَا بْنُ مِيخَا بْنِ زَبْدِي بْنِ آسَافَ، رَئِيسُ التَّسْبِيحِ يُحَمِّدُ فِي الصَّلاَةِ وَبَقْبُقْيَا الثَّانِي بَيْنَ إِخْوَتِهِ، وَعَبْدَا بْنُ شَمُّوعَ بْنِ جَلاَلَ بْنِ يَدُوثُونَ”.

ونرى وقوفا:

إنجيل لوقا 11:18:

“أَمَّا الْفَرِّيسِيُّ فَوَقَفَ يُصَلِّي فِي نَفْسِهِ هكَذَا: اَللّهُمَّ أَنَا أَشْكُرُكَ أَنِّي لَسْتُ مِثْلَ بَاقِي النَّاسِ الْخَاطِفِينَ الظَّالِمِينَ الزُّنَاةِ، وَلاَ مِثْلَ هذَا الْعَشَّارِ.

ونرى صلاة فردية وصلاة جماعية:

إنجيل لوقا 18: 10:

“إِنْسَانَانِ صَعِدَا إِلَى الْهَيْكَلِ لِيُصَلِّيَا، وَاحِدٌ فَرِّيسِيٌّ وَالآخَرُ عَشَّارٌ”.

“وفي الصبح باكرًا جدًّا قام، وخرج ومضى إلى موضع خلاء، وكان يصلّي هناك” (مرقس 1: 35).

ونرى ذهابا إلى الصلاة وإيابا منها:

سفر أعمال الرسل 16: 16:

“وَحَدَثَ بَيْنَمَا كُنَّا ذَاهِبِينَ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ، أَنَّ جَارِيَةً بِهَا رُوحُ عِرَافَةٍ اسْتَقْبَلَتْنَا. وَكَانَتْ تُكْسِبُ مَوَالِيَهَا مَكْسَبًا كَثِيرًا بِعِرَافَتِهَا”

كذا نطالع صلوات بالليل والنهار،أما صلاة المساء فكان النصارى يؤدونها قبل أن يأووا إلى فراشهم، وفيها يشكرون الله تعالى على النعمة التي أسبغها عليهم في النهار:

سفر نحميا: 1/6 :

“لِتَكُنْ أُذْنُكَ مُصْغِيَةً وَعَيْنَاكَ مَفْتُوحَتَيْنِ لِتَسْمَعَ صَلاَةَ عَبْدِكَ الَّذِي يُصَلِّي إِلَيْكَ الآنَ نَهَارًا وَلَيْلًا لأَجْلِ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ عَبِيدِكَ، وَيَعْتَرِفُ بِخَطَايَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ الَّتِي أَخْطَأْنَا بِهَا إِلَيْكَ. فَإِنِّي أَنَا وَبَيْتُ أَبِي قَدْ أَخْطَأْنَا”.

إنجيل لوقا 6: 12:

“وَفِي تِلْكَ الأَيَّامِ خَرَجَ إِلَى الْجَبَلِ لِيُصَلِّيَ. وَقَضَى اللَّيْلَ كُلَّهُ فِي الصَّلاَةِ للهِ”

سفر المزامير (42: 8):

“بِالنَّهَارِ يُوصِي الرَّبُّ رَحْمَتَهُ، وَبِاللَّيْلِ تَسْبِيحُهُ عِنْدِي صَلاَةٌ لإِلهِ حَيَاتِي”.

ونرى رفعا للأكف بالدعاء أثناء الصلاة:

سفر إشعياء 1: 15:

“فَحِينَ تَبْسُطُونَ أَيْدِيَكُمْ أَسْتُرُ عَيْنَيَّ عَنْكُمْ، وَإِنْ كَثَّرْتُمُ الصَّلاَةَ لاَ أَسْمَعُ. أَيْدِيكُمْ مَلآنَةٌ دَمًا”.

والحقيقة أن العهد الجديد يحتم على المسيحيين اتباع شريعة اليهود في صلواتهم، ففى الكتاب المقدس ها هو عيسى:

“دخل المجمع في السبت، وصار يعلّم. فبهتوا من تعليمه؛ لأنه كان يعلّمهم كمن له سلطان وليس كالكتبة” (مرقس 1: 21، 22).

سفر أعمال الرسل 16: 13:

“وَفِي يَوْمِ السَّبْتِ خَرَجْنَا إِلَى خَارِجِ الْمَدِينَةِ عِنْدَ نَهْرٍ، حَيْثُ جَرَتِ الْعَادَةُ أَنْ تَكُونَ صَلاَةٌ، فَجَلَسْنَا وَكُنَّا نُكَلِّمُ النِّسَاءَ اللَّوَاتِي اجْتَمَعْنَ”.

أما وقد حوى الكتاب المقدس كل هذه الطقوس الخاصة بالصلاة فأين الطقوس الكنسية للصلاة اليوم من ذلك كله ولم اقتصرت الصلوات على أيام بعينها حتى غدت كثير من الكنائس البروتستانتية خالية من معمريها بينما يحث الكتاب نفسه على المداومة عليها:

رسالة بولس الرسول إلى أهل كولوسي 4: 2:

“وَاظِبُوا عَلَى الصَّلاَةِ سَاهِرِينَ فِيهَا بِالشُّكْرِ”.

سفر أعمال الرسل 10: 2:

“وَهُوَ تَقِيٌّ وَخَائِفُ اللهِ مَعَ جَمِيعِ بَيْتِهِ، يَصْنَعُ حَسَنَاتٍ كَثِيرَةً لِلشَّعْبِ، وَيُصَلِّي إِلَى اللهِ فِي كُلِّ حِينٍ”.

لقد ركزت الكنائس على التمييز بين صلاة النصراني الذي يعمل والراهب المتفرغ للعبادة، فالأول يشتغل طوال النهار فيتمسك بصلاتي الصباح والمساء فقط، أما الرُّهْبان الذين يعيشون في الأَدْيَرة أو مُنْعزلين فيقيمون الصلوات السبع، وربما يزيدون عليها، ويؤدونها بعمق كالمتصوفة، مستدلين برسالة بولس إلى أهل كورنثوس التي تقول:

“أُصلي بالروح” (كورنثوس الأولى 14: 15).

ويذكرون أن المسيح عليه السلام ترك لهم حرية تلاوة العبارات التي يختارونها، شريطة ألا يخرجوا عن الصلاة التي علمها لهم المسيح عليه السلام.

فهل احتفظ الرهبان بحق التدخل التشريعى حتى في تلك الشعيرة المهمة المتميزة في جميع الأديان! يبدو أن البدعة أيضا قد نالت من هذه الشعيرة في المسيحية مبلغا كبيرا سيما في مجمع نيقية الكنسى الذى أبطلت فيه كثير من شرائع المسيحية لأغراض ما، فلا المسيحيون اتبعوا شريعة اليهود فيها ولا أقاموها حق إقامة كتابهم لها؛ فلا اتبعوا اليهود ولا اتبعوا كتابهم. فكيف للموسيقى أن تدخل هذه العبادة وما علم أن المسيح جعلها في عبادته. ولماذا جعلت كل الصلوات عبارة عن أناشيد والتى -فى بعض الأحيان- تخلو عن معان هادفة؟ ولماذا حددت الكنيسة يوما واحدا لهذه الشعيرة والأنجيل ملىء بالنصوص الموحية بصلوات بالليل والنهار؟

والعجيب أن المجلس الفاتيكاني ما يزال يحدث فيها تعديلات كثيرة، ويُصدرها إلى العالم النصراني الكاثوليكي. ونموذج الصلاة الطقسية التقليدية في الكنيسة الكاثوليكية، صار على النحو التالى: يدخل القِسّ في الكنيسة، فيقوم له الحاضرون تعظيمًا، ويقول (ناويًا الصلاة): باسم الآب، والابن، وروح القدس… وهنا يدور الحوار بين الإمام والجماعة في تقديس الله والثناء عليه، ثُمّ يتقدم الإمام باعترافه بالذنوب والخطايا، ويطلب الدعاء؛ فتدعو الجماعة له، ويحدث مثل هذا مع الجماعة، ثم يرتقي الإمام، ويتلو دعاءً لاتينيًا يسأل الله فيه أن يمحو الخطايا، ويغفر الذنوب، ويتوسل بالسيد المسيح وبالقديسين، وتقول الجماعة: يا عيسى المسيح ارحمنا. ويعقب الصلاة العشاء الرباني، ويُختم ذلك كله بدعاء وجيز، وهنالك تنتهي الصلاة وتنتشر الجماعة.

وتشارك الصلاة في الكنائس البروتستانية، بقسيمها النظاميMethodist والإنجليكاني Anglican الصلاة الكاثوليكية في أجزاء الاعتراف والتوبة والاستغفار، وتجديد الإيمان، وتوثيق العقائد الأساسية، والحمد والثناء، والدعاء، وتلاوة الإنجيل، إلا أنّ أساليبها وصيغها تابعة لمناهج كنائسها المقررة، وتتميز بأشياء هي: 1- عدم استعمال اللغة اللاتينية مطلقًا. 2- صياغة الأدعية كلها في أناشيد وترنيمات تُغنى بألحان مرسومة مقررة. 3- الصمت عند الذكر والأدعية. 4- حذف عبارات مُمْعِنة في تأليه المسيح. والصلاة عند النصارى حَوَالَي سبع صلوات في اليوم والليلة، وهي أنواع: منها صلاة فردية سريَّة، وصلاة عائلية في البيت، ومنها الصلاة العامة في الكنيسة، وأهمها صلاة يوم الأحد، حيث يقرأ الكاهن شيئًا من المزامير أو الكتاب المقدس عندهم، والجميع وقوف يستمعون، وعند نهاية كلّ مقطع يدعون.

إن الدين الإسلامى كرسالة خالدة إلى البشرية جاء ليصحح تلك الأمور ويضعها في موازينها فالصلاة جعلت في دين الإسلام من أهم ركائزه وأركانه وفيها يتلى القرآن الذى حوى قصص الأنبياء ومن بينهم عيسى عليه السلام. وهى بآدابها وسننها كما جاءت عن نبى الإسلام بلا تبديل ولا تغيير. ويستكشف المقال التالى حقيقة الصلاة في الإسلام وكيف أن هذه الشعيرة قد غايرت ما عليه المسيحية التى تغير فيها مفهوم الصلاة كثيرا عن الجادة.


مراجع

موقع طريق الإسلام

 لسان العرب لابن منظور


tags:



title: Clergy Councils and Christian Faith,
content:

Jesus’ Disciples After His Demise

The disciples of Christ dispersed after his death in the lands, preaching his teachings. They were either wronged by Emperors or kings or were dealt justly and their teachings were welcomed. There were popes, patriarchs, bishops, monks and priests who took over religious posts in many Christian regions. Sometimes, they were influenced by different leaders’ respective religious backgrounds which were always influenced by pagan trends and rarely influenced  by the teachings of Arius who was influenced by Jesus’ monotheist and moderate teachings and rejected the divine nature of Jesus. Accordingly, fathers, bishops, and patriarchs were divided as to the real Christian doctrine and conflicts raised.""

Therefore, calls for holding mass councils were also raised. Leaders forced religious clerics to find solutions to the problem to unify Christians upon one definite doctrine that should be upheld by ll Christians worldwide.

Clergy-Councils emerged by the order of the princes to establish a clear-cut doctrine for Christian societies where some of laws were approved and others were rejected. The councils, according to Shaykh Abu Zahrah, were claimed to be approved by the apostles although they were made about 22 years after the demise of Christ in Jerusalem.  And some councils rejected some of the Torah and the old-testament teachings.  

The councils that constituted the Christian doctrine mounted to ten. In his book Hidayat Al-HayaraIbn Al-Qayim, mentioned them saying,

First Council of Antioch 324 A.D

He said Saeed ibn Bitriq: Thirteen bishops met in the city of Antioch, and pondered over Paul’s doctrine. They cursed him and cursed those following him.

Other Caesars appeared in whose times, Christians were persecuted. At the time of King Constantine I, a great debate was made between a patriarch and saint Arius. The king and the attendees approved the sayings of the patriarch and suggested that Arius be banished and stemmed him with disbelief but the patriarch suggested that the king should summon patriarchs and bishops and hold a council to show reality of Arius and his doctrine to be denounced publicly.

Second Council of Nicaea 325 A.D:

One year and two months later, King Constantine I sent to all countries to summon bishops and patriarchs and two thousand and forty-eight bishops gathered in Nicaea. They were of different religious views. There were those hold Mary and Jesus to be gods and called Mariamaniya.

Others claimed that Christ’s position from the Father is likened to a torch taken from fire; the two flames are dependable after being separated and the fire’s flames will not decrease by such process.

They differed greatly that the king gathered the three hundred and eighteen bishops in a great council. He sat at the middle, and gave them his ring, his sword, and his stick and said, “You have the authority today on my Kingdom. Do whatever you want to do to save the Christian nation and strengthen it in religion and other affairs. They blessed the king, and gave him his sword, and said to him, “Support the religion of Christianity, and defend it”. They gave him forty books including Christian laws for bishops and laws for kings to rule with.""

They agreed that the Christian Easter be on Sunday, after the Passover of the Jews, so that they may not gather on one day with the Jews, and denied bishops-marriage. The Council was made seventeen years of the reign of King Constantine I. They left the council while being dignified by the king who ordered that:

-The idols be destroyed and idols-worshipers be killed.

-There should not be in his government except the Christians. And leaders should be from them.

-The Friday after the Easter-Friday, should be off and peaceful.

Arius Council:

Then Constantine perished, and Constantine II, his oldest son mounted the throne. In his time, Arius companions and those following him gathered and met with him. They praised the doctrine of Arius before him and pointed out that the three hundred and eighteen bishops of Nicaea were mistaken and misled when they uphold that the Son agrees with the Father in essence.

The advised him to discourage people from such doctrine because it was a fault, and the king determined to rectify the matter. However, Bishop of Jerusalem, discouraged him from following Arius’ companions, and claimed that they were misled and infidels for the three hundred and eighteen bishops cursed all of them. The king accepted the bishop’s saying.

Third Council of Constantinople 381 A.D:

It was fifty-eight years after the first council of Nicaea that another council was held. Ministers, leaders and commanders assembled before the king and said: People are consent with Arius and Maqedonius deviant sayings. So, write to all bishops and patriarchs to assemble and clarify for people real Christianity.

The king wrote to different regions to summon bishops. They were one-hundred and fifty bishops who gathered to think over Arius’ doctrine. They denounced Arius’s saying that  the Holy Spirit is created and not god.

The Patriarch of Alexandria said, “The Holy Spirit is not other than God’s spirit without which God cannot live. If we are to say that God’s spirit is created, His life would be created and if his life was created, He would not have been alive which is a blasphemous doctrine”.

They cursed those adopting such doctrine and many other doctrines and pointed out that the Holy Spirit is a creator and not created, a one-essence god who stems his nature from the Father and the Son.

They increased in the faith laid by the three hundred and eighteen bishops, who only believed in the Holy Spirit, the following doctrine: “We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, who gives life. Who is from the Father and the Son. He should be glorified and worshiped”.

They showed that the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit are three Hypostases, faces and three properties. According to them, they are one in three i.e. trinity, and the body of Christ has a spirit which is reasonable and human.

The council was finished and they cursed many of their bishops and companions.

Fourth Council:

One and fifty years later, another council was held. It was the fourth council which was to think over Nestorius’ sayings. He claimed that Mary was not the mother of God but gods are only two the Father and the human who was from Mary an shared the name of the son of God but not really His son. Nestorius was cursed and banished at last.

Fifth Council:

Council of Ephesus II 449 A.D and the emergence of the doctrine of Jacobites.

Sixth Council:

Complex of Khalqdoun, 451 A.D

Seventh Council:

In the days of king Instas and the emergence of the doctrine of the Malkites and the renouncement of the doctrine of Jacobites.

The Eighth Council:

The Council of Constantinople which approved the four councils after the Khalqdounian Councils.

Ninth Council: At the time of the Muslim Caliph, Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan.

Tenth Council: When the king died, the sixth Council members met once again.

Commenting on these different councils Imam Ibn Qayyim said, “Christians had the tenth Council in which the Sixth-Council members gathered. They were objected, so the king summoned one hundred and thirty bishops who approved the Sixth-Council agreement and the five councils before it.  They cursed those disagreeing with them. Although those councils perished and those Christian misled-scholars died, their deviant teachings passed to the following generations who depended on them. Those councils, moreover, had about four-thousand Christian scholars of bishops, patriarchs and priests who disagreed and stemmed each other with disbelief”.

One may wonder at the Christians’ status-quo and ask: Is there a rational Christian who may ponder over such deviant situation by Christians who were divided into many sects which accuse each other of infidelity.""

The human hands played the word of God with the approval of Christian clergies who assembled to approve heresy. Let the mercy of Allah (God) be upon the nation of Islam, which did not disagree on its scripture, Lord and Prophet, It was saved by Allah from being misled. Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said, “My nation will not agree on heresy”. Its scriptures were also saved by the science of accurate narration through authentic narrators (Isnad) of prophetic hadiths (sayings).


References:

Abu Zahra, Lectures on Christianity (looking at the stages by which the Christians beliefs passed whether through books, holy councils and sects), Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi – Cairo, 3rd ed, 1381 e – 1966.

Ibn Al-Qayiyim, Hidayat al-Hayari to reply to the Jews and Christians: Muhammad Ahmad al-Haj, ed. Publisher: Dar al-Qalam.1416 – 1996.


tags: clergy-council-in-ghana / clergy-council-oxnard / clergy-councils-and-christian-faith / clerical-councils-and-christian-faith / featured-image / n-alcoholism / national-clergy-council / supreme-clergy-council-of-biafra /



title: Jizya Between Christianity and Islam, Historical Facts,
content:

There should not be doubt that Islam is the religion of moderation, tolerance and peace. History witnessed the tolerance of  Muslim leaders with the people of lands where war was broken with them and the Muslims.

This is further supported by the fact that many people of conquered countries by Muslims, after testifying to the tolerance of the Islamic message, converted to Islam freely and became supporters of the cause of Islam. There are lands, especially in Asia, which were opened by Muslims without bloodshed, for the citizens of those countries were influenced by the truthfulness and kind dealing of Muslim merchants.

""

“Is it right to pay the tax to Caesar or not?” …..Jesus replied, “So give back to Caesar what is Caesar’s, and to God what is God’s.”(Matthew 22: 16-22)

Under the light of the clash of civilizations, we encounters voices unjustly condemning the Islamic  stand as regards to Jizya (i.e. An amount of money taken from non-believers) to distort the image of Islam and diminish its value. The enemies to Islam, claimed that Islam imposed such tribute on the people of the book to burden them and persecute them.

To clear out such misconception one, should have a proper understanding of the concept of Jizya in Islam not in the context of the black history of the Roman persecution of Jews and Christians when they were forced to pay tributes, taxes or tithes.

Jizya was not an Islamic innovation. Islam is not among the religions, which imposed taxes on the heads of nations defeated in wars unjustly and without restrictions, Dr. Al-Saqqar says,

“The New Testament conveys the prevalence of such practice, ‘After Jesus and his disciples arrived in Capernaum, the collectors of the two-drachma temple tax came to Peter and asked, “Doesn’t your teacher pay the temple tax?” “Yes, he does,” he replied. When Peter came into the house, Jesus was the first to speak. “What do you think, Simon?” he asked. “From whom do the kings of the earth collect duty and taxes–from their own children or from others?” “From others,” Peter answered. “Then the children are exempt,” Jesus said to him. “But so that we may not cause offense, go to the lake and throw out your line. Take the first fish you catch; open its mouth and you will find a four-drachma coin. Take it and give it to them for my tax and yours.’ (Matthew 17: 24-27).

The Bible also tells that the prophets took the tribute (Jizya) as Joshua practice with the Canaanites: ‘…But the Canaanites dwelt among the Ephraimites on this day, and served under tribute.'(Joshua 16: 10).

According to Jesus, Christians should not break the laws of Judaism, ‘Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them.’ (Matthew 5: 17). According to the Bible, moreover, Christ orders his followers to pay the tribute to the Romans, and he hastened to pay it, They sent their disciples to him along with the Herodians. “Teacher,” they said, “we know that you are a man of integrity and that you teach the way of God in accordance with the truth. You aren’t swayed by others, because you pay no attention to who they are. Tell us then, what is your opinion? Is it right to pay the tax to Caesar or not?” But Jesus, knowing their evil intent, said, “You hypocrites, why are you trying to trap me? Show me the coin used for the tax.” They brought him a denarius. and he asked them, “Whose image is this? And whose inscription?” “Caesar’s,” they replied. Then he said to them, “So give back to Caesar what is Caesar’s, and to God what is God’s.” When they heard this, they were amazed. So they left him and went away.” (Matthew 22: 16-22) (see Matthew 11/19). The New Testament considers the tribute to the sultans as s legitimate right, and even makes it a religious duty!, ‘Let everyone submit to the governing authorities, since there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are instituted by God. Consequently, whoever rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves. For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and you will be commended. For the one in authority is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for rulers do not bear the sword for no reason. They are God’s servants, agents of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer. Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but also as a matter of conscience. This is also why you pay taxes, for the authorities are God’s servants, who give their full time to governing. Give to everyone what you owe them: If you owe taxes, pay taxes; if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor, then honor.'(Romans 13: 1-7).”

The Roman civilization, praised by Europe, set the worst example for the concept of tribute (Jizya) when they mixed it with unfair taxes on the weak people.

Historians reported that the Roman empire had many financial important resources such as customs, mines, taxes and fields for planting wheat and pastures. They were hired from the companies represented in tithes-collectors who were supported by the government to collect them. They were noblemen who, unjustly and increasingly  practiced the levy of taxes in the name of the government. They confiscated the properties of debtors and even sold them as slaves “(A. Al-Kurdi, Khutat (plans) of Al-Sham, Kurd Ali c 5 p. 47).

In its view of this concept, Islam does not leave mankind depend on human heinous practices emanating from misguided passions, but it tackles it in accordance with the rules of mercy, benevolence while preserving the sovereignty of the State of Islam and imposing its prestige.

First of all, Islam defines the kinds of people from whom the Jizya should be taken. Jizya is a general provision with exceptions. It is a means to the imposition of the sovereignty of the State of Islam and is resorted to only after the introduction of Islam to people of defeated lands.

When there was a difference upon the approach by Muslim leaders opening the land of Smarqand where the people was not given the choices of reconciliation with conditions or fighting, the people of Smarqand complained to Caliph Omar bin Abdul Aziz who ordered that a Muslim judge should consider the complaint. The judge ruled that:

First, the exile of Muslims from Smarqand. Second: Compensating the people of Samarqand in exchange for the damage caused to them by the entry of Muslims to their lands.

Third: Invitation of the people of Smarqand to Islam, and if they did not accept Islam they would be given the choice of either reconciliation or fighting. However, the people of Smarqand waived their complaint after touching the tolerance and good spirit of Islam”. (A. I. Al-Mat’ani, The tolerance of Islam in the call to Allah and human relations as approach and biography, , Wahba Library, p. 158.

Dr. Al-Saqqar says,

“Allah has commanded Muslims to take the Jizya from those only able to fight, as stated in the Qur’anic aya: ‘Fight those who do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day and who do not consider unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth from those who were given the Scripture – [fight] until they give the jizya willingly while they are humbled..’ (9:29). Al-Qurtubi stated that there is a consensus among Muslim scholars that Jizya should only be taken from those only able to fight, including free adult men, not women, offspring, slaves and mad people or very old people. The amount of money taken was very few that many people could pay it. It did not exceed one dinar per year at the era of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and four dinars at the time of the Ummayad Caliphate (state) per year. Caliph Omar sent to leaders ordering them not to impose Jizya on women, children and that only those male adults should pay it)”.

Once the leader of Egypt advised Caliph Omar bin Abdul Aziz not to exempt those who convert to Islam from paying the Jizya, but the devout Caliph refused, saying: “Allah sent Muhammad (peace be upon him) as a caller (to Islam), and did not send him as a tax-collector!”.

Islam warns against injustice to Mu’ahadin (those given a pledge of peace and protection by the Islamic State), Dr. Al Saqqar says:

“Allah, in his scripture, and the Prophet, command benevolence to the people of Jizya. Islamic Sharia prohibits doing injustice to them and also mal-treatment to them. The Qur’an urged dealing kindly with peaceful Jews and Christians (Ahlul Kitab): Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes -from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly. Allah only forbids you from those who fight you because of religion and expel you from your homes and aid in your expulsion – [forbids] that you make allies of them. And whoever makes allies of them, then it is those who are the wrongdoers. “(60:8-9)

The word kindness is a translation to the Arabic word “AlBir” which denotes the highest degree of benevolence and good treatment.

Such bir is required even when dealing with parents and considered as an indication of good morals as stated by the Prophet (peace be upon him).

Safwan reported that the Messenger of Allah said: “Beware, if anyone wrongs a  Mu’ahad (one given a pledge of peace), or diminishes his right, or forces him to work beyond his capacity, or takes from him anything without his consent, I shall plead for him (Mu’ahad) on the Day of Judgment. And said: “Whoever killed a Mu’ahad (a person who is granted the pledge of protection by Muslims), shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise though its fragrance can be smelt at a distance of forty years (of traveling) (i.e. s/he would not be admitted to Paradise at first).


References

Al-Saqqar, Jizya in Islam.

A. Al-Kurdi, Khutat (plans) of Al-Sham, Kurd Ali.


tags: definition-world-history / featured-image / historical-facts / jizya / jizya-between-christianity-and-islam / jizya-definition / jizya-significance / jizya-tax / jizyah / jizyah-shorts / jizyah-shorts-miss-houston /



title: Is Christianity or Jesus’ Message Eternal and Universal?,
content:

Many Christians today claim that Christianity is a universal religion that is immortal to mankind. Therefore, the crusades-campaigns were launched on various countries, especially the Islamic territories to impose the Christian religion on all mankind. They claim that the Christian religion is not just restricted to the Israelites.

Such doctrine by Christians is disputable. Islam admits that the teachings of Jesus, in his time, were meant to those to whom Jesus was sent i.e. Israelites, as he says in Matthew (5:10),

“To the ways of the Gentiles do not turn, and the cities of the Samaritans do not interfere, but rather proceed to the lost sheep of the family of Israel.” Therefore, such Christian belief is contrary to the words of Christ himself.

Christ preached that, after him, false prophets would appear. He also foretold about a sincere person called Paraclete or Comforter who would come after his demise to stay with people forever. He also preached the place from which he will emerge and the characteristics of his message.

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the ways of the Gentiles do not turn, and the cities of the Samaritans do not interfere, but rather proceed to the lost sheep of the family of Israel.”Matthew (5:10)

Here we see an evangelical text that seems to indicate the advent of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, and makes a hint at it. Jesus says,

“I ask the Father to give you another comforter, so that he may stay with you forever” (John 14: 16).

“If I go, I will send him to you”.

Some Christians claim that Prophet Muhammad neither did he meet the disciples nor he stayed forever with them because he was a man who lived for 63 years then died. Therefore, according to them he could not be the comforter mentioned in the Bible.

To clear such misunderstanding, we should understand the phrase “with you” not to refer to the “disciples”, because Jesus mentioned the word “forever” and the disciples did not live forever.

They, moreover, claimed that what is meant by “the comforter” is the Holy Spirit emanating from God because He is eternal and will stay forever with the believers in Christ.

Let’s assume that, the Holy Spirit is the comforter who will remain forever with the disciples, what about his mission of delivering revelation and message to the prophets? Would it cease?!

It seems that such evangelical text has not been saved from the hands of manipulation. From the beginning, the Bible refers to “Gabriel” as the Holy Spirit not the “comforter”.

Furthermore, Christians alleged that the phrase “send him to you”, may not apply to Prophet Muhammad because he claimed to be sent by Allah (God) as all prophets did, and the comforter will be sent by Jesus! One may, however, also ask: Will the Holy Spirit  be sent by  Jesus or by God?!

According to the Gospels, “The comforter will also be given” by Jesus, indicating that the prophet of the end of time carries the seal of prophecy between his shoulders,

“Do not seek after the mortal food, but behind the food that remains to eternal life, which the Son gives because God has put His seal on him.” (6/27).

We note the words “eternal” and “seal” which refers to an eternal message after which no message would come. Such eternal message has been achieved in the message of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.

Applying, he comforter to” the Holy Spirit “, does conflict its application to Prophet Muhammad as well, because there is an evangelical text which describes the comforter as the “Spirit of Truth” as in John (16 / 12-14):

“I also have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear now. But when that Spirit of Truth comes, he will guide you to all truth because he does not speak of himself, but everything he hears, he tells it and tells you things to come. He glorifies me because He takes from me and tells you”.

It seems that the phrase denoting that the comforter would be sent by Jesus is not the words of Jesus but was rather put in his mouth by the hands of the scribes! The Holy Qur’an points out that Jesus foretold and gave glad tidings of the appearance of the Last Prophet after him:

“And [mention] when Jesus, the son of Mary, said, “O children of Israel, indeed I am the messenger of Allah to you confirming what came before me of the Torah and bringing good tidings of a messenger to come after me, whose name is Ahmad.” But when he came to them with clear evidences, they said, “This is obvious magic.” (61:6).

Imam Ahmad narrated that al-Irbad ibn Sariyah said:

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “I am the seal of the Prophets while Adam was still at the stage of being clay while  being created (i.e. it was  decreed before the creation of Adam.’ “I will tell you the origin of this. I was the result of the invocation of my Father (great grandfather) Abraham and the glad-tidings of Jesus and the dream of my mother that came to be true “.

Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came with the eternal message of Islam, including the Qur’an, which included the stories of former prophets, including Jesus. The Qur’an told much about  the life of Jesus, peace be upon him, his message to the Israelites and his mother.

The Qur’an also mentioned facts that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not witness in his life in the Meccan Pagan-environment. Moreover, People of the Book (Jews and Christians) were few there.

He reminded them of the facts about Jesus, peace be upon him. Allah Almighty says,

“You will surely find the most intense of the people in animosity toward the believers [to be] the Jews and those who associate others with Allah; and you will find the nearest of them in affection to the believers those who say, “We are Christians.” That is because among them are priests and monks and because they are not arrogant. And when they hear what has been revealed to the Messenger, you see their eyes overflowing with tears because of what they have recognized of the truth. They say, “Our Lord, we have believed, so register us among the witnesses. And why should we not believe in Allah and what has come to us of the truth? And we aspire that our Lord will admit us [to Paradise] with the righteous people. So Allah rewarded them for what they said with gardens [in Paradise] beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide eternally. And that is the reward of doers of good. “(5 / 82-84).

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was vulnerable in Mecca and even when he migrated to Medina he was being chased by the pagans. The Prophet did not concede neither to the call of the pagans nor to the people of the book. He rather revealed their defaults.

He did not cajole the people of the book and compromise with them so that so that they may support him. He rather said the truth to them showing what went wrong with the gospels and warned them against following falsehood as regards to the negation of his prophethood. Allah almighty says,

“A faction of the people of the book wish they could mislead you. But they do not mislead except themselves, and they perceive [it] not. O People of the Scripture, why do you disbelieve in the verses of Allah while you witness [to their truth]? O People of the Scripture, why do you confuse the truth with falsehood and conceal the truth while you know [it]?” (3:69-71).


tags: alvation / christianity-universal / christianity-universal-religion / christianity-universalism / christianity-universalizing / christianity-universalizing-or-ethnic / featured-image / is-christianity-or-jesus-message-eternal-and-universal / universalism-christianity /



title: Muslims and the Opening-Battle of Coptic Christian Egypt,
content:

Before the Opening-Battle:

The commandment of Prophet Muhammad to deal kindly with the Christian copts:

The Prophet of Islam’s (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) mercy and tolerance in battles appears much in the opening battle of Egypt. Books of history tells that

“When ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas, was about to open Egypt, he told its people saying, “Our Prophet, peace be upon him, had promised us to open Egypt, and  commanded us to deal with its people kindly due to our kinship or affinity relationship (i.e. shared lineage). They replied to him that: Such kinship or affinity relationship due to lineage which dates back for old times was not to be preserved  except by a real prophet (i.e. Prophet Muhammad)”.

It was narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “If you open Egypt deal kindly with the Copts because they are abiding by a dhimmah (settlement/pact/ truce) and we have Rahim (kinship affinity relationship or) to them (Narrated by al-Bayhaqi).

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“Our Prophet has commanded us to deal mercifully and kindly with you due to our shared Rahim (i.e. kinship or affinity relationship/ lineage).” (‘Amr ibn Al-‘As’s saying to Christian Copts before the Opening-battle in Egypt”

Ibn Kathir explains the word Rahim (kinship or affinity relationship) that Hajar (Ishmael’s mother) was Coptic. Others said that Abraham’s mother was Coptic (It is well known that Arabs are the descendants of Prophet Abraham).

He says, “Definitely both of them were Coptic. Explaining dhimmah (truce) he points out that Prophet Muhammad considered Al-Muqawqis’s, Egypt’s leader at the time, present, as peaceful treatment which should be considered as  a truce with him.

The Opening-Battle of Egypt

From the first moment of the opening of Christian Egypt, ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas, the leader of the Muslim expedite to Egypt, does not rush to fight its people. He rather, followed the tolerant  Islamic legislation of the religion of Islam, which is not thirst for blood or to kill the innocent. He declares them to be safe, both: their lives and their homes, till they ponder over the matters between them and the Muslims.

The books  Islamic history narrate that:

“When ‘Umar, the Muslim’s caliph, and Muslims completed the opening of Asham (the Levant), he sent ‘Amr ibn al-Aas to Egypt. He, moreover, sent Zubayr ibn al-‘Awam and Bishr ibn Artah, Kharjah ibn Hudhafah and ‘Umayr ibn Wahb al-Jumahi to accompany him.

They all gathered at the door of Egypt, and all met with Abu Maryam, the Catholicoi of Egypt, and Abu Mariam the bishop who was sent by Al-Muqawqis from Alexandria to support him, and protect Alexandria.

When they all met seeing each other, ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas said to his soldiers, “Do not hurry until they have no excuse.” He, moreover, said “Both Abu Mariam and Abu Miriam the monks of this land should appear”, which they did. He said to them, “You are both the monks of this land: know that that God (Allah) sent Muhammad- peace be upon him- with the right and commanded him to follow it, and Muhammad, peace be upon him, has commanded us to follow it. He delivered all of the message he was ordered to deliver by God and passed away making all matters clear to us”.

Among that which he ordered us to do is that we should be patient with people until they have no excuse. Therefore, we call you to Islam. Those responding to our call, would be considered of our people and those who refused to adopt Islam, will be commanded to pay Jizyah (tribute) and would be protected.

Our Prophet has informed us that we would be victorious over you and open your land. He, moreover, commanded us to deal mercifully and kindly with you due to our shared Rahim (i.e. kinship or affinity relationship/lineage). If you respond to us and do not fight us, you will be safe throughout another truce.

Our leader has commanded us to deal kindly with the Copts because our Dhimmah and Rahim”. They replied to him that: Such kinship or affinity relationship due to lineage which dates back for old times was not to be preserved  except by a prophet (i.e. Prophet Muhammad)”.

“She (Hajar) was the daughter of our king of Memphis. The people of Heliopolis invaded her and her people. They defeated them to be alienated and distracted. The daughter of the king was given to Abraham -peace be upon him. So welcome you and your Amir (prince). So please give us a pledge of safety until we come back to you”, they replied.

‘Amr said to them “I cannot not be deceived by anyone. I will delay you for three days so that you may discuss the matter among yourselves otherwise I will fight you. They replied , “Give us more days,”. He added to them one more day. They also asked him one more day , which he did. 

They went back to Al-Muqawqis, Artabun who refused to respond to their message and ordered that the Muslims should be fought secretly. They (the two monks)  said to the people of Egypt: “We will strive to protect you and do not return to them (i.e. respond to them)”. He said to them “There are still four days left (for the truce) so fight the Muslims”.

Their leader advised them to invade the Muslim secretly and deceive them. Noble-men among them reprimanded them for fighting the brave people (i.e. Muslims) who killed Caesar and Hercules and defeated them in their lands . Artabun insisted that the Muslims should be deceived and besieged.

They could not defeat the Muslims who Besieged Ain-Shams (Heliopolis) in Egypt on the fourth day. Al-Zubayr along with his soldiers mounted on the wall protecting them and invaded them.""

They fled to the door to be met with ‘Amr who reconciled with them through a truce. Al-Zubair had control over the land. ‘Amr wrote to them a Book of peace (i.e. pledge or truce) which reads:

“In the name of Allah the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful: This is what ‘Amr Ibn Al-‘Aas has given to the people of Egypt including: the safety of souls, religions, their properties, their churches, their crosses, their sea and land. No one may interfere with anything of these or  diminish those rights, The people of Egypt should give the Jizyah (A few amount of tribute) if they agreed to this truce and their river’s increase mounted to fifty million; they should only be charged an amount which should meet their protection.

If any of them refused to pay Jizya, an amount of Jizya would be deducted from the whole amount of jizya imposed on them and the truce between us and those refused to pay it would be revoked. If their river is less than the required amount, an amount of Jizya  would be deducted according to it. The one refused such truce and wants to go out of the land or migrate so that s/he may not be under our rule, s/he may do and would be safe until s/he migrates.

In this book is the pledge of Allah and the pledge of his messenger and the pledge of the Amir of the believers and the pledge of the believers.

All of the people of Egypt adopted such a truce and they accepted reconciliation; soldiers then dispatched in Al-Fustat (Old Cairo). Abu Mariam and Abu Miriam then appeared to ask ‘Amr to free the captives who were captured after the battle. ‘Amr refused to free them and expelled the two monks out.

When ‘Umar b. Al-Khattab, the Muslim Caliph heard about the incident, he ordered that the captives at the time of fifth-days truce should be freed and the captives who fought and those who did not should not. Some books mentioned that ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab gave the captives the choice either to revert to Islam to be free or join their people and also be freed  on the condition that they pay the Jizya. Those fled captives who left and Muslims could not chase them were not to be chased to be forced to abide by this truce.

Some of the captives accepted Islam freely and others did not, to whom Muslims did not do harm. This how the truce between the Muslims and the Egyptian Copts was”.

This historical narration shows the Justice and tolerance the Muslims adopted represented in their leaders’ kind dealing towards the Egyptian Christian Copts. They gave them choice either to revert to Islam or adopt their religions making a truce between them and the Muslims which safes their lives and properties in recompense to a small amount of money called the Jizya which makes Muslims responsible to protecting them.

Such Justice also materializes in ‘Amr’s command that the amount of Jizya should be based on the amount of water of the Nile River so that the Copts may not be harmed at the times of drought.

It also materializes in Umar’s dealing with the captives ordering his leader not to rush to refuse to free them giving them the choice either to adopt Islam or to be freed on the condition of paying Jizya.

Thomas Arnold, the author of The Call to Islam, notes (According to him): “The rapid success of the Arabs is due, first of all, to the acceptance of the Christian people who hated the Byzantine rule and their unjust administration and their bitter hatred to the theologians (Monks and priests). Jacobites, moreover, who were the majority of the Christian population, were treated unfairly by the followers of the Orthodox doctrine of the court. “

Egypt’s Christian Coptic conquest represented the finest example of adherence to the human civilized values ​​in times of wars and battles. The followers of the religion of Islam adhered to these noble Islamic principles even with enemies.

The provisions of contemporary human rights even find roots in the principles of Islam. It is the first religion to give the right to asylum. A Qur’anic aya reads,

“And if any one of the polytheists seeks your protection, then grant him protection so that he may hear the words of Allah. Then deliver him to his place of safety. That is because they are a people who do not know..”(9:6).

It is the religion which has protected innocent people, their  lives, property and  families.

The justice of the Muslim invaders of Egypt with the Christians of Egypt has made the Copts equal in the treatment before Muslim leaders along with their different sects (Malkani and Jacobites) who oppressed each other at the time whenever they took over rule.


tags: airo-egypt / coptic-christian-cathedral-egypt / coptic-christian-church / coptic-christian-church-egypt / coptic-christian-egypt-history / coptic-christian-egypt-tattoo / coptic-christian-egyptian-culture / coptic-christian-holidays-in-egypt / coptic-christian-monasteries-egypt / coptic-christian-news-egypt / coptic-christian-religion-egypt / featured-image / muslims-and-the-opening-battle-of-coptic-christian-egypt /



title: On the Last Day, Will Jesus Hold People Accountable or Condemn Them?,
content:

Will Christ really condemn people?

Christians claim that Jesus Christ will judge the people on the day of Judgment and condemn them. Some of them claim that Jesus will “come once again, in another formula and role as the Major Judge who will condemn and has the right to condemn because he lead a moral life without sin”. No sin. ” They cite texts from the Gospel of John and other texts to prove this. These are as follows:

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“For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each of us may receive what is due us for the things done while in the body, whether good or bad. “2 Corinthians (5/10)

The Gospel of John (5/26-27) says,

“For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself. And he has given him authority to judge because he is the Son of Man..”

2 Corinthians (5/10) states:

“For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each of us may receive what is due us for the things done while in the body, whether good or bad. “

 Romans 14:10-12

“You, then, why do you judge your brother or sister? Or why do you treat them with contempt? For we will all stand before God’s judgment seat. It is written: “‘As surely as I live,’ says the Lord, ‘every knee will bow before me; every tongue will acknowledge God. So then, each of us will give an account of ourselves to God”.

In Luke(6 / 37-39),

“Do not judge, and you will not be judged. Do not condemn, and you will not be condemned. Forgive, and you will be forgiven. Give, and it will be given to you. A good measure, pressed down, shaken together and running over, will be poured into your lap. For with the measure you use, it will be measured to you. He also told them this parable: “Can the blind lead the blind? Will they not both fall into a pit? “!

Validity of the Christian Doctrine??

This doctrine stems its validity from, the Gospels or Epistles. It is quite known that the validity of the gospels is questioned. The least to be valid among them is the Gospel of John. The words of Paul in his letters are unacceptable, because as he was a fanatic Jew, and the first to cause the deviation of the Christian religion from its real face (i.e. monotheism) to polytheism and heresy claiming that deity Jesus Christ was a deity.

It is strange that the Christians, after proving such judgment, evade it and claim that it is only a reward for them because their true salvation and forgiveness of their sins have been already achieved by the crucifixion of. They construe the meaning of such judgment to mean many other thing than real judgment or distract it from the true meaning.

True View of Jesus’ Role

Whatever it may be, what should we believe is that God Almighty is the one who will hold people accountable on the Day of Resurrection in the true sense and no human may take part in it. Prophets may only be witnesses to it. In the Qur’an (13:40-41):

“And whether We show you part of what We promise them or take you in death, upon you is only the [duty of] notification, and upon Us is the account. Have they not seen that We set upon the land, reducing it from its borders? And Allah decides; there is no adjuster of His decision. And He is swift in account”.

“And whoever invokes besides Allah another deity for which he has no proof – then his account is only with his Lord. Indeed, the disbelievers will not succeed.” (23/117)

Suppose the validity of these texts, which are based on Jesus being the Judge for people, it does not apparently indicate so. Jesus peace be upon him will be merely a witness on people on the day of reckoning that he delivered the message as a messenger from Allah (God) Almighty. He will witness against those who deviated from the straight path and were misled. The Qur’an testifies to this fact that is Allah will bring a witness from all nations. Such witness will be the Messenger who was sent to them:

“So how [will it be] when We bring from every nation a witness and we bring you, [O Muhammad] against these [people] as a witness? That Day, those who disbelieved and disobeyed the Messenger will wish they could be covered by the earth. And they will not conceal from Allah a [single] statement.” (4:41-42)

“And [mention] the Day when We will resurrect from every nation a witness. Then it will not be permitted to the disbelievers [to apologize or make excuses], nor will they be asked to appease [Allah].” (16:84).

“And [mention] the Day when We will resurrect among every nation a witness over them from themselves. And We will bring you, [O Muhammad], as a witness over your nation. And We have sent down to you the Book as clarification for all things and as guidance and mercy and good tidings for the Muslims.” (16:89).

“And [for] their saying, “Indeed, we have killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, the messenger of Allah.” And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him; but [another] was made to resemble him to them. And indeed, those who differ over it are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge of it except the following of assumption. And they did not kill him, for certain. Rather, Allah raised him to Himself. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise. And there is none from the People of the Scripture but that he will surely believe in Jesus before his death. And on the Day of Resurrection he will be against them a witness”. (4:157-159).

“And [beware the Day] when Allah will say, “O Jesus, Son of Mary, did you say to the people, ‘Take me and my mother as deities besides Allah?'” He will say, “Exalted are You! It was not for me to say that to which I have no right. If I had said it, You would have known it. You know what is within myself, and I do not know what is within Yourself. Indeed, it is You who is Knower of the unseen. I said not to them except what You commanded me – to worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. And I was a witness over them as long as I was among them; but when You took me up, You were the Observer over them, and You are, over all things, Witness. If You should punish them – indeed they are Your servants; but if You forgive them – indeed it is You who is the Exalted in Might, the Wise”. (5:116-118).

One again, suppose such claim by the Christians to be true, how will Jesus hold the people who did not witness his message accountable?, They might not heard of his call or heard it in her false garment? The Quran says:

“We were not tortured until we send an apostle.”

‘Abdullah reported Allah’s Messenger (Muhammad PBUH) as saying:

I shall be there at the Cistern before you, and I shall have to contend for some people, but I shall have to yield. I would be saying: My Lord, they are my friends, they are my friends, and it would be said: You don’t know what innovations they made after you”. (Sahih Muslim 2297)

Anas b. Malik reported Allah’s Apostle ) PBUH) as saying:

“Some persons from amongst my associates would turn to my Cistern; when I would see them and they would be presented to me, they would be detained in the way while coming to me. I would say: My Lord, they are my companions, they are my companions, and it would be said to me: You don’t know what innovations they made after you”.( Sahih Muslim 2304 a)

Is Jesus, peace be upon him, aware of what is in the hearts of people so that he can hold them accountable? Allah says:

“To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. Whether you show what is within yourselves or conceal it, Allah will bring you to account for it. Then He will forgive whom He wills and punish whom He wills, and Allah is over all things competent.” (2:284).

According to Islam, Islam Jesus peace be upon him will descend down at the end of time, kill the Antichrist and break the cross and kill the pig. The descent of Jesus will be a sign for the Hour. Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said,

“By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, surely (Jesus,) the son of Mary will soon descend amongst you and will judge mankind justly (as a Just Ruler); he will break the Cross and kill the pigs and there will be no Jizya (i.e. taxation taken from non Muslims). Money will be in abundance so that nobody will accept it, and a single prostration to Allah (in prayer) will be better than the whole world and whatever is in it.” Abu Huraira added “If you wish, you can recite (this verse of the Holy Book): — ‘And there is none Of the people of the Scriptures (Jews and Christians) But must believe in him (i.e Jesus as an Apostle of Allah and a human being) Before his death. And on the Day of Judgment He will be a witness Against them.” (Sahih al-Bukhari 3448), (4.159) (See Fath-ul-Bari, Page 302 Vol 7

There are many prophetic hadiths (sayings of Prophet Muhammad), according to Ibn Kathir, a Muslim scholar, which tell about the descent of Jesus peace be upon him, before the Day of Resurrection as a just imam (leader or ruler) and judge, Therefore, Jesus will be only a judge in worldly life not the Hereafter and he will be a ruler. He, moreover, will not hold people accountable for bad intention in the heart, he rather will judge by what appeared to him by the law of Islam, including the words of the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him.

The concepts of condemn, Judgment, reward and punishment are confused on the Christian part. We see false and contradictory interpretations of the concept of condemn. The Christians claim that Christ did not come to condemn people and claim on the other side that he will hold them accountable! Christ says according to the Bible John 12:47: “If anyone hears my words but does not keep them, I do not judge that person. For I did not come to judge the world, but to save the world.” According to this Jesus did come to condemn the world, how will he hold them then accountable according to the following text: “Do not judge, and you will not be judged. Do not condemn, and you will not be condemned. Forgive, and you will be forgiven”(Luke 6:37)?!


References

  • Studies in Jewish and Christian Religions, by Saud bin Abdul Aziz Al-Khalaf, Library of Adwa’ Al-Salaf, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Books of the Prophet’s Sunnah


tags: featured-image / held-accountable-bible / held-accountable-for / held-accountable-for-their-actions / held-accountable-kjv / held-accountable-meaning / held-accountable-scripture / will-jesus-hold-people-accountable-on-the-day-of-judgment-or-condemn-them /



title: You ask and Jesus Answers (Part III),
content:

When Jesus Christ was asked about the place for worship, he stated that worship will be conducted at a new place other than Jerusalem.

This is an indication of changing the direction of the Prayer from Jerusalem to Makkah and shifting of the religious leadership from Israelites to Arabs.

“The woman said to him, ‘Sir, I perceive that you are a prophet. Our fathers worshiped on this mountain, but you say that in Jerusalem is the place where people ought to worship.’ Jesus said to her, ‘Woman, believe me, the hour is coming when neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father. You worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvation is from the Jews. But the hour is coming, and is now here, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father is seeking such people to worship him. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.’” (John 4:19-24)

 Jesus spoke here about true believers who will worship God in a place other than Jerusalem.

 In The New Testament, Jesus refers to a stone rejected by builders, and then the stone became the cornerstone. It is also mentioned that the kingdom of God will be taken away and given to a people that will produce its fruits.

“Jesus said to them, ‘Have you never read in the Scriptures: ‘the stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone; this was the Lord’s doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes?’ Jesus Christ said: ‘Therefore I tell you that the Kingdom of God will be taken away from you (Israelites) and given to a people who will produce its fruit.’”  (Matthew 21:42-43)

According to the Islamic version of the story, Prophet Abraham took Ishmael and Hagar and settled in Makkah (Paran in the Bible). A city where the Valley of Baca exist.

“Our LORD, I have settled some of my descendants in an uncultivated valley near Your sacred House (the valley of Baca in Makkah), our LORD, that they may establish prayer. So make hearts among the people incline toward them and provide for them from the fruits that they might be grateful.” (Qur’an14:37)

The Valley of Baca was mentioned in the Bible:

“How lovely is your dwelling place, Lord Almighty! My soul yearns, even faints, for the courts of the LORD; my heart and my flesh cry out for the living God. Even the sparrow has found a home, and the swallow a nest for herself, where she may have her young—a place near your altar, Lord Almighty, my King and my God. Blessed are those who dwell in Your house; They will still be praising You. Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in You, whose heart is set on pilgrimage. As they pass through the VALLEY OF BACA, they make it a spring; the rain also covers it with pools. They go from strength to strength; each one appears before God in Zion. O Lord God of hosts, hear my prayer; Give ear, O God of Jacob! Selah O God, behold our shield, and look upon the face of Your anointed. For a day in Your courts is better than a thousand. I would rather be a doorkeeper in the house of my God, than dwell in the tents of wickedness for the Lord God is a sun and shield; the Lord will give grace and glory; No good thing will He withhold from those who walk uprightly.” (Psalms 84: 1-11)

In spite of the claim that the verses above speak about the alleged Zion and argue about its existence, the descriptions given are applicable to Makkah.

“And proclaim to the people the pilgrimage; they will come to you on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every distant pass -That they may witness benefits for themselves and mention the name of Allah on known days over what He has provided for them of [sacrificial] animals. So eat of them and feed the miserable and poor. ” (Qur’an 22:27-28)

 – Makkah’s gates are open day and night:

“And when We made the House (Ka’aba at Makkah) a visitation and a sanctuary for the people (saying ‘Make the place where Abraham stood a place of prayer. ‘And We made a covenant with Abraham and Ishmael: ‘Purify My House for those who circumambulate around it, and those who cleave to it, to those who bow and prostrate'” (Qur’an 2:125)

– In Makkah, violence, devastation, destruction and hunting is forbidden:

“Indeed those who have disbelieved and prevent from the way of Allah and from this Sacred Mosque, which We have appointed for all mankind – its resident and the foreigner have the same rights in it; and whoever wrongfully intends injustice in it – We shall make him taste a painful punishment.” (Qur’an 22:25)

– Makkah is where the pilgrims go from mountain to mountain (strength to strength): [1]

In the above biblical verses (Psalms 84: 11) is mentioned that ‘they go from strength to strength’, in the Hebrew text, the original word of strength that was used in this verse means a hill, mountain or a barrier. This is a very clear description of one of the Muslim’s rituals [2] in the Holy city of Makkah during the Pilgrimage, as they go from hill to hill that are called Al Safa and Al Marwa. This shows another possible fabrication that is found in the Old Testament.

The verse starts with ‘Blessed is the man whose strength is in You,’ and this also refers to the final Prophet Muhammad who came with the pure message of the monotheism.[3]

In addition, the Valley of Baca is clearly mentioned as a noun in the biblical verse, therefore, it’s an existing place and not a metaphorical one as believed by others. It is also written in capital letters which confirms this assumption.

The biblical verses as said are speaking about a sacred place accommodating the courts of the Lord. In fact, all of those descriptions apply to the city of Makkah.

 Although Muslims believe that the city of Jerusalem is a Holy Place that was chosen by God forever, but the city of Makkah for them is the expected Zion prophesied in the Bible. The meaning of the word Zion[4] is ‘elevated place,’ which is a metaphorical description to a Holy place and which was applied on many cities, it has been used figuratively for the church and for Israel in the Babylonian captivity, so it seems like it has been used for any group or mass of people worshiping God, or to refer to a specific geographical location which can be applied on Makkah here.

The Anglican Church printed in New Zealand a book of prayers replacing the word Zion and the word Israel with the words of the holy mountain of God and the people of God to ensure that the original religious terms are not confused.

Moreover, the idea that the text tells about the past can be easily rejected, as the expression of incidents happened in the form of the past is used in the language of the Bible. “The ancients writers used the future tense to denote the present, the past without discrimination, and the past used to denote the future,” says Espinosa: “This caused many similarities.”

It is very known that the Temple at Jerusalem was established long time after Prophet Abraham, while the Holy House at Makkah was there even before Abraham, and it was in fact the first House of worship appointed for humanity, which was built by Prophet Adam with the help of the angels of God who placed the foundations of this House and was rebuilt later by Prophet Abraham.

” Indeed, the first House [of worship] established for mankind was that at Makkah – blessed and a guidance for the worlds.” (Qur’an 3:96)

 Ka’aba which exists from the remotest antiquity; was visited annually by people from the most distant corners of Arabia; and its sacredness was respected by the whole of Arabia.

The verses below command praising the Creator at the villages inhabited by Kedar, in reference to glorify and praise Him in Makkah. Kedar is a son of Ishmael and a forefather of Arabs. His offspring lived in Arabia. We read:

“Sing unto the Lord a new song, and his praise from the end of the earth, ye that go down to the sea, and all that is therein; the isles, and the inhabitants there of. Let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up their voice, the villages that Kedar doth inhabit: let the inhabitants of the rock sing, let them shout from the top of the mountains.” (Isaiah 42:10-11)

Prophet Ishmael is the base for the Family Tree of Prophet Muhammad through Kedar. The followers of Ishmael- Prophet Muhammad and all Muslims- are faithful until today to this covenant of circumcision. Muslims lift up their voices by praising God the Almighty and glorifying Him in Makkah. In their five daily prayers, Muslims include the praise of Prophet Abraham and his followers with the praise of Prophet Muhammad and his followers.

“As you know, Kedar is a descendant of Ishmael, these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, listed in the order of their birth: Nebaioth the firstborn of Ishmael, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam. ” (Genesis 25:13)

Makkah which is covered by a multitude of camels and to which flocks of Kedar are gathered.

“The multitude of camels  shall cover thee, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah; all they from Sheba shall come: they shall bring gold and incense; and they shall shew forth the praises of the Lord. All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered together unto thee, the rams of Nebaioth shall minister unto thee: they shall come up with acceptance on mine altar, and I will glorify the house of my glory.” (Isaiah 60:6-7)

 Makkah exists between Midian ( North Saudi Arabia ) & Sheba ( Yemen)
Kedar & Nebaioth are sons of Ishmael: According to Genesis 25:13. Kedar was the second son of Ishmael, the ancestor of the Prophet Muhammad. Nebaioth is the firstborn son of Ishmael.

Abraham decided to settle Ishmael and his mother Hagar there because of a divine instruction given to Abraham as a part of God’s plan. Hagar did not find water; so she ran seven times between two hills looking for water. This is the origin of one of the rituals that is performed during the pilgrimage to the city of Makkah by Muslims and the same ritual that was mentioned earlier about the two strengths.

“Then God opened her eyes and she saw a well of water. So she went and filled the skin with water and gave the boy a drink. God was with the boy as he grew up. He lived in the desert and became an archer. While he was living in the Desert of Paran, his mother got a wife for him from Egypt.” (Genesis 21:16-21)

The Bible tells us that a well of water gushed out in the Desert of Paran (The name ‘Paran’ or ‘Faran’ has often been used to refer specifically to the wilderness and mountains near where Makkah is located), [5] from which Hagar drank and gave her son Ishmael to drink.

""This consists with the above verses making mention of the Valley of Baca which is made into a place of springs. The well is still available and it is called the well of Zamzam. As mentioned earlier, Abraham and Ishmael later rebuilt the Ka’aba (the house of worship) in Makkah. The place where Abraham used to perform prayers near the Ka’aba is still there (the Station of Abraham).

During the pilgrimage, pilgrims from all over the world commemorate the offering of Abraham and Ishmael by slaughtering a ram.

The fact that another area called Faran does exist in the south of Palestine does not prevent the existence of other Faran that was inhabited by Ishmael, and the historical evidence leads us to Hijaz (Arabia), where Prophet Ishmael and his father rebuilt the Ka’aba, and where the well Zamzam exploded under his feet, as recognized by a number of historians, like Jerome and theologian Eusebius who said that Faran is Makkah.

Here we find a map was painted in the French court at the time of Louis XIV shows the location of the Mountains of Faran (Paran) in the Arabian Peninsula.

Beersheba [6] is one of the names of the well of Zamzam which is located in the city of Makkah, and according to Muslim’s faith, it is not the name of a city in Palestine as the geographical description of the well does not apply to the place located in south Palestine as claimed.  So here we find another attempt to hide the truth.

In fact, there is no place on the earth where a well gushed out for Hagar and her son Ishmael and at which Ishmael lived and begot a great nation other than Makkah.

“Abraham looked up and there in a thicket he saw a ram caught by its horns. He went over and took the ram and sacrificed it as a burnt offering instead of his son. So Abraham called that place The Lord Will Provide. And to this day it is said, ‘On the mountain of the Lord it will be provided.” The angel of the Lord called to Abraham from heaven a second time and said, “I swear by myself, declares the Lord, that because you have done this and have not withheld your son, your only son, I will surely bless you and make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky and as the sand on the seashore. Your descendants will take possession of the cities of their enemies, and through your offspring all nations on earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed me.’”(Genesis 22: 13-19)

Here the verse talks about a place that Abraham offered his son, and this place was a place that generations shall worship God in. There is no place on earth where the Jews or Christians celebrate Abraham’s sacrifice and worship God in, but actually in Islam, Muslims have a major feast which the feast of sacrifice, where they believe that the origin of this feast, the sacrifice of Ishmael, happened in Makkah.

We read also:

“These I will bring to my holy mountain and give them joy in my house of prayer. Their burnt offerings and sacrifices will be accepted on my altar; for my house will be called a house of prayer for all nations.”(Isaiah 56:7)

 As the Jews are just one nation, unlike the Islamic world, therefore, this prophecy is about the pilgrimage in Makkah.

This verse refers to:

  • The Holy mountain (Mount Arafat): Standing in the mount of Arafat is one of the pillars of pilgrimage in Islam.
  • The sacrifices: During Pilgrimage rams are slaughtered to commemorate the story of Abraham and Ishmael. (Pilgrimage’s Sacrifices)

    References:

[1]Dr. Zaghlul Al Najar.

[2]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safa_and_Marwa

[3]Dr. Zaghlul Al Najar.

[4]The book of Hidayat Al Hayara.

[5] Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan (1870). A series of essays on the life of Mohammad: and subjects subsidiary theretoLondon: Trübner & co. pp. 74–76.

[6] http://en.wikishia.net/view/Zamzam

http://neurotherapy-of-christian-brain.blogspot.com/2013/05/well-of-zamzam-or-wilderness-of.html

About the Author:

Faten Sabri (1973-) is a modern Jordanian Muslim thinker. She is well known for her frequent interaction with various cultures, religions and she speaks different languages. She studied comparative religions which made her able to discuss the controversial issues about Islam with the truth seekers and free thinkers.She wrote books about the message of Islam, the original concept of God and Jesus Christ in Islam and she has monthly articles in an international magazines. These books and articles were translated and distributed in more than 9 languages.


tags: featured-image / jesus / jesus-answered-i-am / jesus-answers-a-question-with-a-question / jesus-answers-email / jesus-answers-our-prayers / jesus-answers-prayers / nswers-who-is-my-neighbor / you-ask-and-jesus-answers-part-iii /



title: Usury Between Christianity and Islam,
content:

usury, is prohibited by all heavenly laws in their true and pristine forms. It is , forbidden due to the gross exploitation of the need of others. This article aims to explore the distinction between the Islamic and Christian legislations on usury and its aspects. They may be summarized as follows:

First: comprehensiveness and methodology

In contrary to the Christian legislation, which is devoid of rulings regarding usury, except the statement of the inviolability of usury, the Islamic legislation comprehensively characterizes usury and its rulings in terms of thoroughness and meticulous methodology as regards to its root, types and details of each type

""

“Do not charge a fellow Israelite interest, whether on money or food or anything else that may earn interest. You may charge a foreigner interest, but not a fellow Israelite”. (Deuteronomy 23:19-20)

.

According to Islam, it is forbidden lend with interest (usury) whether with a Muslim or non-Muslim. Allah Almighty says,

“O you who have believed, do not consume usury, doubled and multiplied, but fear Allah that you may be successful..” (3: 130)

He also – Almighty -says:

“O you who have believed, fear Allah and give up what remains [due to you] of interest, if you should be believers. And if you do not, then be informed of a war [against you] from Allah and His Messenger. But if you repent, you may have your principal – [thus] you do no wrong, nor are you wronged.” (2: 278-279)

It divides usury into two types: riba al-Fadl and riba al-Naseeah.

Riba al-Fadl (unequal compensation) represents a dollar for two dollars, or one kg of wheat for half. This type of usury is authentically prohibited by the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

“Do not sell gold for gold except in full scale,” Recorded by al-Bukhari.

The second type: is al-Nasee’ah usury : like one dollar for other to be repaid later on or one Kg of wheat for one Kg of barley (wheat) to be repaid later, or gold for silver, without receipt. In the Sunnah:

“Do not sell gold with gold except in full scale, and do not sell one of them it for the other which is absent .”

The Sunnah gives much details on the items in which usury occurs:

Malik bin Aus said,

“I was in need of change for one-hundred Dinars. Talha bin ‘Ubaidullah called me and we discussed the matter, and he agreed to change (my Dinars). He took the gold pieces in his hands and fidgeted with them, and then said, “Wait till my storekeeper comes from the forest.” `Umar was listening to that and said, “By Allah! You should not separate from Talha till you get the money from him, for Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said, ‘The selling of gold for gold is Riba (usury) except if the exchange is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and similarly, the selling of wheat for wheat is Riba (usury) unless it is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and the selling of barley for barley is usury unless it is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and dates for dates, is usury unless it is from hand to hand and equal in amount”.

Abd al-Rabman b. Abia Bakra reported on the authority of his father that Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) forbade the sale of gold for gold, and silver for silver except equal for equal, and commanded us to buy silver for gold as we desired and buy gold for silver as we desired. A person asked him (about the nature of payment), whereupon he said: It is to be made on the spot. This is what I heard (from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him).” 

Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “Most of the companions of the Prophet, the followers to them and the four well-known Imams agreed that the following things: gold, silver, wheat, barley, dates and raisins should not be sold except in equal scales”.

Based on analogy on the basis of the prohibition of these things, the scholars of Islam have forbidden and legalized the prohibition of other things which share them the same underlying reason of prohibition and may be considered as an act of usury.

As regard to the Bible, especially the Old Testament, there are many texts tackling only the prohibition of usury.

“If you lend money to one of my people among you who is needy, do not treat it like a business deal; charge no interest. If you take your neighbor’s cloak as a pledge, return it by sunset, because that cloak is the only covering your neighbor has. What else can they sleep in? When they cry out to me, I will hear, for I am compassionate”. (Exodus 22:25-27).

“If any of your fellow Israelites become poor and are unable to support themselves among you, help them as you would a foreigner and stranger, so they can continue to live among you. Do not take interest or any profit from them, but fear your God, so that they may continue to live among you. You must not lend them money at interest or sell them food at a profit”.( The Leviticus, 25:35-37)

“Do not charge a fellow Israelite interest, whether on money or food or anything else that may earn interest. You may charge a foreigner interest, but not a fellow Israelite, so that the LORD your God may bless you in everything you put your hand to in the land you are entering to possess”. (Deuteronomy 23:19-20)

Some Christian commentators claimed that these texts came in a gradual manner and were abrogated by the New Testament verse (Matthew 42: 5) “Give to the one who asks you, and do not turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you”, which abrogates the Jewish legislation of permitting usury with non-Jewish people. He has invalidated Jewish law in permitting riba with non-brothers. commenting on Deuteronomy (23:20):

“You may charge a foreigner interest, but not a fellow Israelite, so that the LORD your God may bless you in everything you put your hand to in the land you are entering to possess”,

Father Antonius says,”It was in a primitive spiritual stage in which they had to lend their brothers without interest which should not be the case with  foreigners i.e. pagans. God taught them benevolence gradually through prohibiting usury among themselves and permitting it with foreigners so that they may love each other. Later on usury may be forbidden even with foreigners as the New Testament law states, “love your enemies, bless your cursers …” which was not to be acceptable by common people at such early time. In addition,  such legislation distinguishing between the Jewish and non-Jewish was to discourage pagans from paganism (Matthew 42: 5, 12: 7 and Luke 35: 6). This is the law of the New Testament, in which people are brought up in a spiritual life i.e. (love for all).

However, this contradicts Jesus’ saying, “I have not come to abolish the Law but to complete it.”  Therefore,  with such two different laws, Christians have no choice except that they reject the saying of Jesus or accept the Jewish legislation that legalizes usury with foreigners only. Replying to this contradiction, some of the commentators resorted to interpreting the texts for usury legalized with “non-brothers” to mean pagans .

Secondly: Tolerance and facilitation

On the other hand,  we see the tolerance of Islam in the prohibition of dealing with usury in all its forms and with all human beings and forbade Islam to usurp other’s properties or rights even if they are non-Muslims. , The Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said:

“Safwan reported from a number of Companions of the Messenger of Allah(PBUH) on the authority of their fathers who were relatives of each other. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: Beware, if anyone wrongs a contracting man, or diminishes his right, or forces him to work beyond his capacity, or takes from him anything without his consent, I shall plead for him on the Day of Judgment..” As a comprehensive religion, Islam even forbids the means to usury It is

Jabir said that Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) cursed the receiver of interest and its payer, and one who records it, and the two witnesses, and he said: They are all equal.

Christianity and Usury today

The Christian position on usury today has changed today. Many churches nowadays legalizes usury due to modern circumstances, despite the general provisions that prohibit it in the Bible. Justifying usury a Christian thinker claims that, “Usury was prohibited in the past  on due to the great number of the poor and the needy and the creditors were the rich. Nowadays, the matter has changed. Not only the poor are in need to loans with interest, but also the rich, the wealthy and foundations, banks, major traders, insurance companies and large and small countries in pursuit of production and investment. In this regard, various rules and regulations have been enacted to deal with money and lending, to get certain interests on loans. Many people nowadays are dealing with banks to deposit money for certain benefits. We do not believe that this kind of usury or interest is forbidden according to the Church. It should be noted that there are different opinions of many religious clerics on this subject. To sum up, we reiterate that dealing with the interest or the gross interest  with brothers or friends who have to be indebted to others due  to destitution is undesirable”.

There is no doubt that this trend is contrary to the teachings of the Bible and the human instinct which entail the prohibition of everything that leads to the exploitation of the need of others, as sanctioned by the eternal religion of Islam along with its immortal teachings and laws.


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